Cover Image

Not for Sale

View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 120

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 119
B-1 APPENDIX B Land Use Classification System Any procedure for estimating internal trip capture within measurable readily measurable with normally available MXDs must have to consider synergy between interacting information at the times when such information is needed; land uses. That will require those land uses to be categorized stable stable so short term development fads can be eas- and classified. ily accommodated; and universally applicable applicable over all possible types of MXD. Desirable Classification System Characteristics Classifications Requirements From information presented in Appendix A, the land use It would appear that there are at least three absolute require- types that have been and appear for the future to be most fre- ments for the land use classification system that will be used in quently included in MXDs are: the internal trip capture estimation process. retail, 1. The classification system must be compatible with the ITE restaurant, trip generation land use classification system since the office, and internal trip capture procedure will be used with ITE trip residential. generation rates. 2. The classification system must distinguish among comple- Less frequent and smaller amounts of the following uses are mentary, interacting land uses. and will be expected to be included in mixed use developments: 3. The classifications must be able to be determined and existing or proposed development units quantified: hotel and entertainment. for proposed developments, as early as the zoning step of the development process, and for existing developments, be clearly distinguishable in Some additional land uses may be included in town cen- the field by data collection personnel. ters and other special developments based on local market demands. The review of existing documentation, examination of Objectives known MXDs, plus discussions with developers, architects, planners, and city planning and transportation officials identi- There are additional attributes that the classification system fied subdivisions of the previous land use types that (1) fre- should have for successful and effective use in practice. The quently are included in MXDs and (2) are felt by developers land use classification system should be: and others to have different users or interaction characteristics. Table B-1 shows subcategories based on these considerations. comprehensible comprehensible to both technical ana- lysts as well as agency reviewers and decision makers; Retail sensitive sensitive so internal trip capture estimates for different combinations of interacting land uses represent Convenience retail serves a very localized market plus some the true level of interaction between those uses; passersby. Dry goods draw from farther away and may be the

OCR for page 119
B-2 Table B-1. Common MXD land use categories and subcategories. Land Use Retail Restaurant Office Residential Hotel Entertainment Convenience Fast food Medical Single-family detached No meeting facilities Cinema Full service Sit down no bar General Townhouse Low price Othera Discount Family Live-work Condo Mid price Other specialty Quality Rental apartment With meeting facilities Other Sit down with bar Low price Family Mid price Quality High price a During initial stages, categorize "other entertainment" as retail - other primary trip destinations for shoppers at that location. at the zoning stage. At present, there is no distinction in trip However, developers and retailers believe that there are at generation characteristics for rent or sale price levels in the least three market segments of shoppers (shown in Table B-1 ITE database. Income or vehicle ownership would not possi- as discount, mid-range, and high end) who shop at different bly be known at the time of zoning. However, the four sug- types of stores and therefore should be considered sepa- gested subcategories would normally be known at the zoning rately. Convenience and dry goods retail cover most of the stage. retail categories. All others can be covered with the other category since there (1) can be significant variability and Hotel (2) they normally appear in small percentages in a MXD, if at all. Hotels with and without meeting facilities should be easily distinguished, even at the zoning stage. It is felt that different room rate levels will draw different travelers who might shop Restaurant or eat at different retail and restaurant facilities. At present, Fast-food and sit-down restaurants clearly have different ITE trip generation data does not distinguish between room trip generation characteristics. They may or may not interact rate levels. differently in a MXD, depending on whether they have drive- through service. Entertainment There are few common entertainment facilities in modern Office MXDs other than cinemas. Those that may appear occupy Developers stated that much of the second or third floor very small percentages of total development square footage. office space in smaller MXDs is occupied by very small busi- Hence, two subcategories should be sufficient. nesses. Some is live-work space, but most other businesses are just smaller and oriented to serving local business or other Other markets. For larger quantities of office space, especially for major office buildings on mixed-use sites, the general and Some other uses are expected to be included in a few MXDs medical office categories should suffice, although little med- or as development trends change over time. When new uses ical office space has been found in the pilot and other studies. begin to appear frequently, additional categories should be General and medical office uses have different trip generation created. characteristics. Whether internal trip capture differs signifi- cantly will need to be determined. Future Further Disaggregation However, it could also be advantageous to collect detailed Residential information so the land use classifications used for internal The four categories shown in Table B-1 are the most basic trip capture can be used for further disaggregated levels. One categories. Trip generation rates differ for some of these. It is method to accomplish this would be to record the ITE land not known if interaction with other uses will vary among use classifications, which are needed anyway for the basic trip these or other residential categories. It is possible that there generation information. The normal ITE process is to pro- would be more differences in internal trip capture if income vide a detailed description of the development so this should or rent levels were to be known, but this is not always known also aid future disaggregation if needed.

OCR for page 119
B-3 Other Classifications Related different quality, comfort, and convenience of connections to Land Use among different uses within MXDs that may affect internal capture and be worth examining in future research. Context In practice with real examples of MXD, nearly all examples There are standard transportation planning classifications to included in the pilot studies and the other sites from which describe area types. MPOs use at least urban and rural classifi- data were drawn fit into categories 5 through 7 in Table B-2. cations and may include downtown, midtown, fringe, and/or These were functionally very similar and probably do not war- other classifications. Since the type of surrounding areas may rant separate categories. influence internal trip capture by affecting competing oppor- When employed in an estimation procedure, it may be tunities and their attractiveness, it is recommended that area appropriate to consolidate the classifications into a smaller types be included in the classification system. number. After a database is established that includes all cat- The following area types or contexts are recommended since egories, the stratifications should become clear. they possibly involve different levels of interaction among uses within MXDs: Internal Proximity rural, While not a land use characteristic per se, proximity between suburban, interacting uses will also influence internal trip capture. In urban, land use terms, proximity may be more familiar as compactness midtown/suburban activity center (define as midtown or (distance between buildings) or density (amount of building suburban business district or activity center [minimum space per area of land). However, neither compactness nor den- office-retail-restaurant uses with at least 1 sq ft per area sity provides a true measure of convenience of internal travel. population with 100,000 sq ft minimum]), Proximity may be more accurately quantified by walking dis- urban core (downtown or other regional CBD), and tance between interacting uses or maximum walking distance special district (industrial, educational, civic center, enter- between building entrances internal to the development. tainment). Proximity was examined as a variable in the pilot studies and estimation procedure. Proximity had an effect for a few land use pairs. The effect was uncertain for most pairs. Proximity Development Type should also be examined further as the database is expanded. It may be further helpful to classify the development by the type of site, as follows: Conclusions single block (Mockingbird Station is an example), Characteristics of a MXD are proposed to be classified in multiple block single development (Atlantic Station and an ultimate system consisting of five variables: Legacy Town Center are such examples), and district. land use, context, It may also be appropriate to include low-, mid- and high- development type, rise sub-classifications within each category, although appli- internal connectivity, and cation may be difficult since some MXDs are composed of internal proximity. buildings of multiple heights, including low-, mid-, and high- rise buildings. In the near term, however, available data will limit classifi- cations to: Internal Connectivity land use, The fourth component of land use classification that is likely development type, and to affect internal trip capture is internal connectivity. The qual- internal proximity. ity and convenience of the internal connectivity will affect the attractiveness of internal destinations within a MXD relative to Table B-3 contains the full system as proposed for initial similar competing destinations outside the development. implementation. Table B-2 lists eight different characteristics of internal Individual sub-classifications have been proposed for each. connectivity. Data found from other sources and collected in The research team considers the classifications as a maximum this project were insufficient to relate internal trip capture to breakout, having more divisions than a database can support. these characteristics. However, the characteristics do provide However, until a database is established with enough samples

OCR for page 119
B-4 Table B-2. Internal connectivity classifications. Classification Description Comments 1. Fully integrated Indoor All uses combined under one roof with internal This may include multiple adjacent uses connections. buildings with internal connections. Outdoor All pedestrian circulation is internal to the This classification has no internal development and provides direct connections streets or parking that must be between different uses. In addition, uses are crossed at grade to reach other well mixed and development is more or less destinations within the continuous and not separated by parking development. facilities. 2. Fully air Multiple building or multiple block development that is conditioned connected by fully enclosed, air conditioned bridges or grade separated tunnels. 3. Internal outdoor Multiple building development that is fully connected Walking between buildings does walkways with on-site, internal walkways. Any pedestrian links not depend on walking along or across parking facilities are provided with specific across parking aisles. Some internal pedestrian walkways. circulation may require crossing parking facilities. 4. Open bridges Open air bridges connect different buildings in the development. 5. Outside at-grade Pedestrians walk on street sidewalks. Mid-block Priority includes pedestrian with priority pedestrian crossings and/or pedestrian crossings have activation after short wait (i.e., street crossings priority at intersections. signals not timed for traffic progression). 6. Outside at-grade Pedestrians use normal street sidewalk system and cross at Standard connectivity for multiple standard street intersections with or without traffic signal control. block, street fronting development. sidewalk system 7. Informal Pedestrian circulation requires walking through parking aisles or along streets without sidewalks. 8. None No viable pedestrian connections or they are too long to Examples: (1) development flanks be convenient; driving is only reasonable way to reach depressed highway and walking some of the interacting uses. distance, even by bridge, is too long to be convenient; (2) development spread out beyond reasonable walking distance, such as a group of four adjacent outlet centers with restaurants extending over 3,000 ft by walking path. No internal trip capture estimated in such conditions.

OCR for page 119
B-5 Table B-3. Proposed ultimate land use classification system. 1 Development Internal Context Land Use 2 Connectivity Type Proximity Rural Retail Single block Fully integrated Internal Convenience uses walking Suburban Multiple block Full service distance single Fully air Urban Discount development conditioned grade between Other specialty interacting Midtown/suburban interconnected separated buildings 3 Other activity center District Internal outdoor Restaurant 4 Fast food walkways Urban core 5 Sit down no bar Open bridges Special district Family Quality Outside at-grade Sit down with bar with priority street Family crossings Quality Outside at-grade Office standard sidewalk Boutique system Medical Informal General 7 Residential None Single-family detached Townhouse Condo Rental apartment Hotel No meeting facilities Low price Mid price With meeting facilities Low price Mid price High price Entertainment Cinema 6 Other 1 It is also recommended that ITE land use classifications be recorded for each development for which data are collected since that classification is needed for trip generation analysis and it will allow for future disaggregation of these land use classifications if needed. For a full list of ITE trip generation land use classifications see Trip Generation, 8th edition, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 2009. 2 May also include low-, mid-, high-rise sub-classifications within each category. 3 Define as midtown or suburban business district or activity center (minimum office-retail-restaurant uses with at least 1 sq ft per area population with 100,000 sq ft minimum). 4 Downtown or other regional CBD. 5 Industrial, educational, civic center, entertainment. 6 During initial stages, categorize "other entertainment" as retailother. 7 No internal trip capture estimated in such conditions. to analyze relationships with internal trip capture, specific restaurant, aggregation would be speculative. residential, The ultimate classifications proposed in this chapter should hotel, be considered as tentative and subject to consolidation. Con- cinema; solidation employed for the research reported in this docu- Development type: ment was: single block multiple block, single development interconnected; Land use: and retail, Internal proximity: office, internal walking distance.