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30 CHAPTER 3 Findings and Applications Chapter 1 provides background about MXDs and current Station has direct access to the station as well as to the transit practice in estimating internal trip capture for MXDs. It also center that is served by six bus routes. Five routs are year round; describes what was available from existing data found from the sixth provides shuttle service to nearby Southern Methodist other sources. Chapter 3 describes the findings from the pilot University (SMU) when school is in session. Bus service head- studies and the compilation of usable data into the estimation ways range from 6 to 20 minutes during weekday peak periods, procedure. Appendix B provides details about the land use from 20 to 45 minutes during daytime off-peak periods, and classification system. Appendix C describes the data-collection 45 to 60 minutes during the late evening hours. Bus service on methodology. Appendix D summarizes the experiences and most of the routes begins before 5 A.M. and continues until lessons learned when conducting the surveys. about 12:30 A.M. Two routes run slightly shorter schedules. The two light-rail lines have peak-period service ranging Pilot Study Surveys between 6 and 10 minutes, with daytime off-peak service ranging between 20 and 30 minutes and evening weekday The following are the results for the pilot study surveys service at about 30-minute headways. conducted. Mockingbird Station is bounded by Mockingbird Lane, a six-lane arterial on the south and US 75, the North Central Mockingbird Station Expressway, an eight-lane freeway on the west. To the north, Mockingbird Station is bounded by another development Development Characteristics containing an office building and a health club. There is no Mockingbird Station is a midtown mixed-use TOD in Dal- vehicular access between the two developments, but there is las, Texas, consisting of five primary land use types: residential, a connecting pedestrianway about midway along the bound- retail, office, restaurant, and cinema. Figure 2 shows an aerial ary between the two developments. photograph of Mockingbird Station. Figure 3 shows the site Beginning about a block west of US 75 is the SMU cam- plan for Mockingbird Station. The site plan is of the second- pus, which has a total enrollment of approximately 11,000 floor level, but the notes describe what is on each of the levels students. SMU students occupy several apartments in the of each building. Not shown is a parking garage beneath the area, although no percentage was available and rental rates surface parking area between the two north-south buildings; were reported to be the highest in the area and beyond bud- this garage serves the loft apartments. The parking shown at the gets of most students. Mockingbird Station has vehicular north end of the site also extends below the two buildings on access along only Mockingbird Lane (two driveways) and the the north end of the site. That parking is available to all users. northbound frontage road of US 75 (one direct garage access Lower portions of the garage in the west building are also open and two additional driveways). to any user; upper spaces are reserved for the office building. Walk access is available from the east and north via conven- However, almost no one other than office building occupants tional sidewalks adjacent to the street curbs. From the south and or visitors was observed by the survey crew to have used this west, walk access requires crossing the very busy Mockingbird garage during survey periods. Lane intersection with the US 75 frontage roads. Walk access to Mockingbird Station is bordered on the east by a Dallas the east is also available through the DART light-rail station and Area Rapid Transit (DART) station and transit center on a requires traversing stairs (of an elevation of about one building light-rail line that splits just north of the station. Mockingbird level) between the west side of the station and Mockingbird

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Pedestrianway to Premier PREMIER MOCKINGBIRD STATION DART Station Source: Google Earth. Figure 2. Mockingbird Station. Source: Selzer Associates. Figure 3. Mockingbird Station upper-level leasing plan and land uses, 2006.

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32 Station's ground level. There is no elevation change on the east side of the station. As noted previously, walk access is available to the middle of the development to the north via a walkway, which is also about one level above ground and is reachable by a stairway. An elevator is also available to reach these last two pedestrian connections; it is near the stairway to the DART station. Parking is provided in three garages and surface lots. One garage is reserved for office building use although its visitor spaces can also be used for reaching other Mockingbird Sta- tion destinations. A second garage serves the apartments. The third garage is for general use. The second and third garages are actually a single garage that has been partitioned into two facilities by a fence. During peak onsite activity periods, surface parking is usu- ally fully occupied and drivers circulate hoping to find a space close to the desired destination, but convenient garage parking was observed to be always available. There was no noticeable traffic congestion at any access point during the field surveys. The only congestion occurred occasionally in the parking lots due to excess circulation by drivers seeking a parking space. Access between the DART station and Mockingbird Sta- tion is very convenient. Walking distance between the station and the most distant building entrance is about 700 ft. Only the stairway is judged to present any challenge. Walking within Mockingbird Station is very easy and con- venient. Although few sidewalks are much more than 10-ft Source: Texas Transportation Institute wide, there are no obstacles except where three restaurants have set up outdoor tables and left fairly narrow walking Figure 4. Entrance to Mockingbird Station lofts. widths. However, those constraints did not present deterring bottlenecks. No special provisions have been made for bicy- cle access. Figure 4 shows an example of sidewalk provisions About one-third of Mockingbird Station's occupied floor at the entrance to the apartment building. space is residential, and another third is retail. More than Table 31 shows the occupied development in Mockingbird 20% is office with the remainder split between the restaurants Station. The combined retail and restaurant space and the and the cinema. The residential is high-end rental. Mocking- apartments are more than 90% occupied, and the office space bird Station has no major retailers. All have 15,000 sq ft or is about 80% occupied. The development appears to be mature less. The retail is primarily specialty women's apparel. The and has been in operation long enough to be experiencing restaurants represent a range of middle- to upper-priced sit- initial turnover of tenants that are not correctly positioned in down and convenience offerings, including an ice cream shop the local market. and a specialty coffee shop. Table 31. Mockingbird Station development. Land Use Occupied Development Units Largest Residential 191 DU, 192,940 sq ft 84% one-bedroom Two specialty apparel stores of 15,000 sq Retail 156,100 sq ft ft only stores over 10,000 sq ft Office 114,600 sq ft All in one building Restaurant 28,900 sq ft Largest about 8,800 sq ft Cinema 31,500 sq ft, 8 screens Parking 1,528 spaces

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33 Travel Survey ered some entrances one day and the remainder the second day, although interviews were conducted at some locations The survey of travel characteristics focusing on internal trip both days. capture was conducted on Tuesday afternoon through Thurs- Interviewers and counters were trained for several hours day morning, May 911, 2006. The primary objective was to prior to the first afternoon's surveys. Each was observed dur- quantify the percentage of internal trip capture during week- ing the first hour in the field (i.e., an hour before the actual data day peak periods in a manner that would support the proposed were going to be used) and adjustments were made as needed. methodology to estimate internal capture using component Supervision continued throughout the survey period. In a few land use quantities and reflect mode of original access and the cases, interviewers were moved to locations that were more degree of internal connectivity. active or better suited the interviewer's particular skills (e.g., The survey was designed to be adaptable to a variety of more mobile to cover several entrances). In another few cases, mixed-use areas. Mockingbird Station was the first site sur- interviewers were reassigned to perform counts to optimize veyed, and a second site was proposed with somewhat differ- results. Interview forms were reviewed during each shift and ent characteristics. At the time, permission for a second site then checked more completely at the end of each shift. Any had not been secured, so specific survey requirements for that errors or missing data were checked with the interviewer either site were not known; however, it was known that while there by phone and/or prior to starting the next shift. Incomplete was a standard survey method to be used, some customizing and erroneous interviews were not used. The same process was might be needed to fit other sites. The essential requirement used for the counts although those checks were much more was to produce comparable data for each survey site. straightforward. Survey personnel who did not perform ade- For Mockingbird Station, the following travel data were quately were released and not used again. The survey crew was collected for peak periods between 6:30 A.M. and 10 A.M. and initially overstaffed with the expectation that some would be between 4 P.M. and 7 P.M.: released, so there was no need to add new personnel and repeat the training. Multimodal cordon count covering all access points; Counts of people entering and exiting doors of each build- ing or business being surveyed during a particular period; Survey Results Exit interviews of people as they departed selected doors; Most of the findings are based on 761 completed exit inter- and views conducted during two morning and two afternoon peak Interviews of people leaving the DART rail station and tran- periods. Of these approximately 30% were obtained during the sit center (customer survey to respond to local conditions). A.M. peak and 70% during the P.M. peak. The completed and usable interviews covered an average of 33% of people exiting The exit interviews were the primary information source. buildings during the A.M. peak period and about 11% during The counts were used to factor interview results. The DART sta- the P.M. peak period. Table 32 shows the numbers of interviews tion interviews were used to provide a more complete indica- completed and usable for each peak period and land use cate- tion of who was using transit. All interviews were conducted gory. Most interviews yielded one usable trip made during one recognizing that the results would be a sample of all people exit- of the peak periods; some interviews yielded two trips. The A.M. ing during a time period. Over the complete duration of the sur- interview percentage was higher than the P.M. percentage vey, interviews were conducted at all entrances that were open because A.M. activity was lower and a similar number of inter- during the survey periods (a few secondary entrances were kept viewers were available near each interview location. The A.M. locked by businesses). Survey supervisors selected the entrances population also included more regulars and fewer occasional to be surveyed during each period, and interviews were con- visitors, which resulted in interviewees who were more com- ducted at those entrances for complete periods. In some cases, fortable with being interviewed in the morning. the business activity was low so interviewers were assigned to The interview forms included questions not only about the cover multiple entrances and to intercept and interview any exit trip, but also about the trip made to the location just being exiting patron they could. departed (see Appendix C for forms closely resembling the During the A.M. peak period, the only businesses open forms used in this pilot survey). If the inbound trip to the sur- during the full period were the office building and a Star- vey location occurred during the survey period, it could be used bucks coffee shop. One other business opened at 9 A.M. while as part of the survey database if the information was sufficiently the remainder opened at 10 A.M. (restaurants at 11 A.M.). complete. Most inbound trips preceding exiting trips occurred During the P.M. peak period, all businesses were open for the before the survey period or lacked complete information. complete survey period. As a result, all entrances could be Table 33 shows the number of usable trips that were derived fully covered during the A.M. peak, but P.M. interviews cov- from the usable interviews (a usable interview was defined as

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34 Table 32. Peak-period interviews, exit movements, and percent interviewed--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use Exit Percent Exit Percent 1 1 Interviews Interviews Movements Interviewed Movements Interviewed Office 49 130 38% 78 275 28% 1 Retail -- -- -- 285 2,311 12% Restaurant 146 395 37% 104 1,560 7% Residential 43 188 23% 34 218 16% Cinema2 -- -- -- 22 220 10% 3 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- Total 238 713 33% 523 4,584 11% 1 Number of interviews conducted with travelers exiting doors of a particular land use that contained at least one usable trip. 2 Retail and cinema not open during morning peak period. 3 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. one that contained at least one fully reported trip). For the A.M. of the two peak periods, are shown as usable trips in Table 34. peak, total usable surveyed trips accounted for about 36% of all Some of the reported inbound trips occurred outside the counted exit movements. For the P.M. peak period, about 13% peak periods, but for many of those trips, the respondent was of the counted trips are represented with usable interview unable or unwilling to provide enough complete information information. to make the inbound trip usable. Finally, some otherwise Table 33 information provides the basis for factoring the complete interviews were not usable because the inbound trip survey data to represent all peak-period trips made. That reported was not actually the immediately previous trip--for expansion is needed to permit an estimate of the number of example, some respondents thought they were being asked internal trips. The results reported herein are based on factor- for the first trip of the day onsite or to the site and not the ing to reflect sampling at each building entrance; factoring immediately previous trip to the establishment they were just was performed by land use for each peak period. The survey leaving. Many of those trips were made outside the peak peri- results were summarized for the A.M. and P.M. peak periods. ods. First trips of the day from the onsite apartments did not Table 34 shows a different summary of completed inter- have a previous trip that day. views, exiting people, and usable trips derived from the inter- The interviews reported in Table 34 differ slightly from views. Respondents were asked about not only the trips that interviews reported in prior tables because the interviews they were in the midst of making as they exited from an estab- reported in Table 34 are associated with the land use for which lishment, but also the trip they had previously made to that an exit trip is reported. Hence, if an interview that was reported same place. The total of the reported trips, if made during one in Table 32 has a valid entering trip but not a valid exiting trip Table 33. Peak-period usable trips, exit movements, and percent usable--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use Usable Exit Percent Usable Exit Percent Trips1 Movements Usable Trips1 Movements Usable Office 59 130 45% 85 275 31% Retail2 -- -- -- 307 2,311 13% Restaurant 147 395 37% 108 1,560 7% Residential 51 188 27% 49 218 23% Cinema2 -- -- -- 24 220 11% Hotel3 -- -- -- -- -- -- Total 257 713 36% 573 4,584 13% 1 Must include specific origin location, location of destination, and land use of destination if internal; this total includes reported exiting and entering trips made . this period. 2 Retail and cinema not open during morning peak period. 3 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station.

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35 Table 34. Peak-Period interviews, exit movements, percent interviewed, and usable trips--Mockingbird Station. Morning Peak Period Afternoon Peak Period Land Use 4 Exit Percent Usable 4 Exit Percent Usable Interviews Interviews Movements Interviewed Trips5 Movements Interviewed Trips5 Office 44 130 34% 50 68 275 25% 70 1 Retail 8 18 50% 11 292 2,311 13% 368 Restaurant 146 395 37% 165 85 1,560 5% 105 Residential 33 188 18% 33 28 218 13% 30 2 Cinema -- -- -- -- 22 220 10% 22 3 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 a Total 231 731 32% 259 495 4,584 11% 595b 1 Retail trips subsequently removed from further analysis since all stores closed during this period. 2 No interviews attempted at cinema during the morning peak period since cinema was closed. 3 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. 4 Number of interviews conducted with travelers exiting doors of a particular land use that contained at least one usable trip. 5 Must include specific origin location, location of destination, and land use of destination if internal; this total includes reported exiting and entering trips made this period. a Includes 2 movements counted at establishments where too few interviews were completed for valid sample. b Excludes 22 movements counted at establishments where too few interviews were completed for valid sample. (e.g., incomplete information), that interview is reported in ment directly to a parking garage via an internal access way Table 32 for the land use where the interview occurred, but and then drive out of the garage and off the site without an reported for the trip origin land use in Table 34. opportunity to be interviewed. A sample of the first group Table 34 points out one final lesson learned from the sur- was interviewed. None of the second group was interviewed vey procedures used in the pilot studies. To obtain accurate because they immediately became external trips and could be inbound trip information while conducting exit surveys, it is directly categorized in that manner. Table 35 also has a column necessary to increase the amount of interview practice for labeled un-surveyed locations. That column does not apply each interviewer (i.e., mock interviews with trainers). Inter- for Mockingbird Station, but does apply to two other pilot viewers recorded too many incomplete interviews and incor- survey sites. Numbers in that column represent the numbers rect previous trips. Some interviewers also failed to ask or of people counted exiting establishments where no interviews record responses for all of the questions about the inbound were taken. trip, resulting in more incomplete inbound trip information. Table 35 shows that a number of people exiting the office However, since only trips that occurred during the two peak building and loft apartments did so by going internally to their periods were of interest and since some of the respondents' garage parking space and then driving out of Mockingbird Sta- inbound trips occurred outside the two peak periods, it was tion. As mentioned above, all of these trips were classified as expected that inbound trips would be fewer than outbound external trips; drivers and passengers did not need to be inter- trips that are directly surveyed. The only way to obtain simi- viewed to get the needed information since one garage exits lar samples of inbound trips is to interview people as they only outside the development's boundary, and the driving dis- enter an establishment--something management declined to tance from the other garage to internal locations is longer than approve at all three pilot study sites. walking. The right column shows the percentage of all exiting Table 34 shows that a few A.M. interviews were completed trips represented by survey information--either a completed at retail outlets. These were primarily employees and deliver- interview or a count of vehicles and occupants exiting the site ies. However, the project panel agreed that the number of from garages with internal access. The interviewed and direct interviews was too small to provide a representative sample garage trips accounted for about half of all exiting trips. and that the results would not be representative of retail stores Table 36 shows similar information but for the P.M. peak that might be open during the A.M. peak period (generally period. The direct exits from the site establishments through convenience retail or grocery or drug stores), so those data are the garages accounted for a much smaller percentage of the not reported in other tables. total trips. The resulting surveyed percentage of total trips is Table 35 shows for the A.M. peak period the total number about 22% in total, but ranges between 7 and 73% by land use. of people exiting from each land use. People could exit in one The survey samples for Mockingbird Station and all other of two ways: (1) from a door of the establishment to the side- surveyed developments were factored in the same manner. walk in front of the establishment or (2) from the establish- Interviews were expanded to represent the door counts by

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36 Table 35. Morning peak-period surveyed trips, exit movements, and percent surveyed--Mockingbird Station. Exit Movements Surveyed Percent Land Use Unsurveyed Garage Trips3 Doors Total Surveyed6 Locations4 Direct5 Office 59 130 -- 34 164 57% 1 Retail -- -- -- -- -- -- Restaurant 147 395 -- -- 395 37% Residential 51 188 -- 216 404 66% 1 Cinema -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- Total 257 713 -- 250 963 53% 1 Retail and cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. 3 Number of usable trip origins at each land use recorded from traveler interviews. 4 Includes locations where no interviews were attempted (prorated by sq ft) and locations where door counts were made, but no usable trip origins were recorded on interviews. 5 Person-trips observed exiting onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly to an external location. 6 Includes those trips described in usable interviews or direct exits from a parking garage to the external street system. land use. Where door counts were not available for all estab- viewed; numbers of those persons are shown by the destina- lishments within a land use classification, development units tion land use. The first three columns under each time period were used as a basis for expanding door counts to cover all accounted for people who entered through either the estab- floor space of a classification. Direct movements to and lishments' outside doors (and are represented by expanded from inside buildings to external locations were handled interviews at those doors or at the DART station) or an inter- through direct counts. The complete discussion is contained nal access from a parking garage. The last column shows the in Appendix G. remaining people who were counted upon entry but are not Table 37 shows data for entering trips that resembles the represented in the first three columns of the table. All these contents of Tables 35 and 36. A sample of persons entering were considered to be from external origins since they did not from the DART rail station and transit center was inter- have an internal trip origin represented in an interview. These Table 36. Afternoon peak-period surveyed trips, exit movements, and percent surveyed--Mockingbird Station. Exit Movements Surveyed Percent Land Use Unsurveyed Garage Trips3 Doors Total Surveyed6 Locations4 Direct5 Office 85 275 -- 416 691 73% Retail1 307 2,311 -- -- 2,311 13% Restaurant 108 1,560 -- -- 1,560 7% Residential 49 218 -- 144 362 53% Cinema1 24 220 -- -- 220 11% Hotel2 -- -- -- -- -- -- Total 573 4,584 -- 560 5,144 22% 1 Retail and cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. 3 Number of usable trip origins at each land use recorded from traveler interviews. 4 Includes locations where no interviews were attempted (prorated by sq ft) and locations where door counts were made, but no usable trip origins were recorded on interviews. 5 Person-trips observed exiting onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly to an external location. 6 Includes those trips described in usable interviews or direct exits from a parking garage to the external street system.

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37 Table 37. Peak-period person-trips entering land uses--Mockingbird Station. Morning Peak Period Afternoon Peak Period Land Use 3 Garage Transit 6 3 Garage Transit Survey Balance Total Survey Balance6 Total Direct4 Direct5 Direct4 Direct5 Office 101 382 91 110 684 69 126 12 56 263 1 Retail -- -- -- -- -- 787 -- 129 256 1,172 Restaurant 167 -- 29 196 392 380 -- 170 1,051 1,601 Residential 12 48 5 138 203 161 236 18 34 449 1 Cinema -- -- -- -- -- 79 -- 106 171 356 2 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Total 280 430 125 444 1,279 1,476 362 435 1,568 3,841 1 Retail and cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. 3 Trip destinations recorded from exit interviews, expanded as described. 4 Person-trips observed entering onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly from an external location. 5 Trips entering onsite land uses from external locations recorded on transit interviews. 6 Balance of person-trips entering onsite land uses; assumed to originate externally. trips account for approximately one-third of the A.M. peak- bound trips. Peak hour percentages are approximately simi- period entering trips and about 40% of the P.M. peak-period lar. The larger outbound percentage reflects employees who entering trips. came by transit in the morning in addition to the evening vis- Table 38 shows the mode split of person trips to Mocking- itors who come and leave by transit. Transit accounts for a bird Station during the A.M. peak period. Personal vehicles significant amount of the trips during both peak periods, (drivers and passengers) account for about three-quarters of attributable at least in part to the proximity of the DART the person trips to and about 70% from Mockingbird Station light-rail station and bus transfer center adjacent to Mocking- during the A.M. peak period. The A.M. peak-hour exiting per- bird Station. centages by personal vehicle are about 5% lower than during Walk trips also account for more than might be expected in the A.M. peak period. Table 39 shows similar information for a midtown area, with 5 to 15% walking to or from Mocking- the P.M. peak period. bird Station. Although Mockingbird Station is close to SMU, Transit is a major mode of access for Mockingbird Station. bicycle trips were negligible as were trips by motorcycle. There About 15% of inbound and 11% of outbound A.M. peak- are limited street crossings of US 75. All are heavily used by period trips use DART rail or bus transit. The peak hour per- traffic and there are no bike lanes. SMU students tend to be centages are slightly higher. During the P.M. peak period, more affluent. All these factors may explain the low bicycle transit accounts for about 13% of inbound and 19% of out- share of peak period trips to and from Mockingbird Station. Table 38. A.M. peak-period and peak-hour cordon person-trip count and mode split--Mockingbird Station. Peak Period (7:00 A.M.10:00 A.M.) Peak Hour (7:45 A.M.8:45 A.M.) 3 Travel Mode Trips Percent Trips Percent Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting 1 Personal Vehicle 670 361 76% 70% 280 129 77% 65% Motorcycle 0 0 0% 0% 0 0 0% 0% Delivery Vehicle 39 17 4% 3% 12 3 3% 2% 2 Transit 128 57 15% 11% 58 28 16% 14% Walk 42 79 5% 15% 15 38 4% 19% Bicycle 0 0 0% 0% 0 0 0% 0% Total All Modes 879 514 100% 100% 365 198 100% 100% 1 Personal vehicle occupancies (entering/exiting): peak period 1.08/1.11; peak hour 1.09/1.11. 2 Transit trips include light rail and bus. 3 Percentage totals may not sum to 100 due to rounding.

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38 Table 39. P.M. peak-period and peak-hour cordon person-trip count-- Mockingbird Station. Peak Period (4:00 P.M.7:00 P.M.) Peak Hour (5:00 P.M.6:00 P.M.) Travel Mode Trips Percent Trips Percent Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting 1 Personal Vehicle 1,292 1,208 76% 74% 456 443 77% 73% Motorcycle 12 5 1% <1% 2 1 <1% <1% Delivery Vehicle 24 21 1% 1% 8 4 1% 1% 2 Transit 225 301 13% 19% 71 131 12% 21% Walk 153 83 9% 5% 55 32 9% 5% Bicycle 4 6 <1% <1% 0 0 0% 0% Total All Modes 1,710 1,624 100% 100% 592 611 100% 100% 1 Personal vehicle occupancies (entering/exiting): peak period 1.25/1.22; peak hour 1.26/1.21. 2 Transit trips include light rail and bus. Vehicle occupancies were higher during the P.M. peak (more Table 40 shows that for the A.M. peak, about 22% of the than 1.2) than for the A.M. peak (about 1.1). This is attribut- inbound and 31% of the outbound trips were internal, able to people going shopping or to restaurants or the cinema. excluding trips between similar uses (e.g., from retail to Table 40 shows (1) the number and percent of internal person retail). Internal trips between similar uses have been excluded trips each peak period and (2) the total person trips generated (from both internal and total trips) because they are not by each land use type and those that are internal to Mocking- included in trip generation estimates used for TIS, which are bird Station. For example, during the A.M. peak period, 64% of based on trips entering and leaving a site. The office building trips leaving the office building are destined for internal desti- has about 64% of its trips destined for internal destinations. nations. Similarly, 15% of the A.M. inbound trips come from Nearly all of those were to a coffee shop located less than origins within Mockingbird Station. 300 ft from the office building. The office building did not Note that the only uses active during the A.M. peak were the contain a snack shop, so a strong linkage developed with the apartments, the office building, a coffee shop, and a mobile coffee shop. This may not always be the case with other types phone store that opened at 9 A.M. All other businesses opened of restaurants. Note that most office building trips during at 10 A.M., although a few employees and delivery people the A.M. peak are inbound; only about 17% of the trips are entered before that time. Hence, most of Mockingbird Sta- outbound, so the high percentage of internal trips does not tion was inactive during the A.M. peak period. reflect a high number of internal trips in this case. Table 40. Peak period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by land use--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Office 684 15% 142 64% 263 26% 669 15% Retail1 -- -- -- -- 1,172 67% 1,284 32% Restaurant 392 43% 371 28% 1,601 22% 1,519 46% Residential 203 5% 388 22% 449 36% 361 43% Cinema1 -- -- -- -- 356 22% 220 50% Hotel2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Total All Trips 1,279 22% 901 31% 3,841 38% 4,053 36% 1 Retail and cinema not open during morning peak period. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station.

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39 Table 41. Percent distribution of internal trip destinations for trips exiting Mockingbird Station buildings--A.M. peak period. Internal Destination Land Use Destination Summary Origin Land Use 2 2 3 Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 -- 63%a 1% -- -- 64% 36% 100% 142 2 1 Retail -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 Restaurant 25% -- -- 3 -- -- 28 72 100 371 Residential 2 -- 20 --1 -- -- 22 78 100 388 Cinema2 -- -- -- -- --1 -- -- -- -- -- 3 1 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- All Origins 11% -- 19% 1% -- -- 31% 69% 100% 901 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 Retail and cinema not open during morning peak period. 3 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. a Chain specialty coffee shop close to office building. The P.M. peak period internal trip capture percentages are Table 43 shows the distribution of internal origins resulting somewhat higher, with about 38% of the inbound and 36% from inbound trips. For example, of trips inbound to the of the outbound trips being internal. Table 41 shows the A.M. office building, 1% come from the onsite residential units. This peak period internal trip capture for outbound trips by land shows that while the coffee shop has a strong interaction with use. Since Mockingbird Station is fully and conveniently the office building, it also has a stronger interaction with the walkable, there are virtually no driving trips (although a few residential apartments that result in several trips to the coffee people were observed driving a few hundred feet from one shop. However, this table shows that the residents then proceed end of a parking area to the other). Since no internal transit from the coffee shop to off-site destinations; few return home. is provided, there are no internal trips by transit. Table 44 shows similar data for the P.M. peak period. As Table 42 shows the same information for the P.M. peak with the interactions shown in Table 42, there are a few strong period. For both A.M. and P.M. peak periods, it appears that relationships and a number of minor relationships. The cases there are a few stronger linkages between land use pairs and relationships are discussed in a subsequent chapter. and several modest linkages. However, note that the inter- Table 45 shows the percent of trips made into and out nal trip capture percentages are a result of inherent inter- of Mockingbird Station buildings that are internal for each action between given land use pairs as well as the quantities mode of travel. Only a small percentage of vehicle driver trips and proximities of each. This is discussed elsewhere in this are internal. Not surprisingly, a very high percentage of walk report. trips are internal. Table 42. Percent distribution of internal trip destinations for trips exiting Mockingbird Station buildings--P.M. peak period. Internal Destination Land Use Destination Summary Origin Land Use 2 Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 9% 4% 2% 0 -- 15% 85% 100% 669 1 Retail 1% -- 20 7 4% -- 32 68 100 1,284 1 Restaurant 3 38 -- 3 2 -- 46 54 100 1,519 Residential 1 31 11 --1 0 -- 43 57 100 361 1 Cinema 0 17 25 8 -- -- 50 50 100 220 2 1 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- All Origins 2% 19% 9% 4% 2% -- 36% 64% 100% 4,053 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station.

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40 Table 43. Percent distribution of internal trip origins for trips entering Mockingbird Station buildings--A.M. peak period. Internal Origin Land Use Origin Summary Destination Land Use 2 2 3 Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 -- 14% 1% -- -- 15% 85% 100% 684 2 Retail -- --1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 Restaurant 23% -- -- 20 -- -- 43 57 100 392 1 Residential 0 -- 5 -- -- -- 5 95 100 203 Cinema2 -- -- -- -- --1 -- -- -- -- -- 3 1 Hotel -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- All Destinations 7% -- 8% 7% -- -- 22% 78% 100% 1,279 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 Retail and cinema not open during morning peak period. 3 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. Table 44. Percent distribution of internal trip origins for trips entering Mockingbird Station buildings--P.M. peak period. Internal Origin Land Use Origin Summary Destination Land Use Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel2 Internal External Total Trips Office --1 5% 19% 2% 0 -- 26% 74% 100% 263 Retail 5% --1 50 9 3% -- 67 33 100% 1,172 Restaurant 1 16 --1 2 3 -- 22 78 100% 1,601 1 Residential 3 19 10 -- 4 -- 36 64 100% 449 1 Cinema 1 14 7 0 -- -- 22 78 100% 356 Hotel2 -- -- -- -- -- --1 -- -- -- -- All Destinations 2% 11% 18% 4% 3% -- 38% 62% 100% 3,841 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 No onsite hotel at Mockingbird Station. Table 45. Peak-period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by mode of travel--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period1 Mode of Travel Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Automobile Driver 857 2 526 3 1,941 4 1,815 5 Automobile Passenger 32 0 35 0 72 0 212 0 Taxi/Car Service 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Transit (Bus) 0 0 12 0 0 0 88 0 Transit (Light Rail) 125 0 22 0 435 0 413 0 Walk/Bicycle 266 100 307 87 1,367 100 1,500 91 1 Travel mode not reported for 26 entering and 25 exiting trips.