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41 Table 46. Peak-period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by mode of access--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period1 P.M. Peak Period2 Mode of Access Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Vehicle Driver 1,058 20% 697 31% 2,847 35% 2,694 37% Vehicle Passenger 32 0% 34 0% 130 45% 354 23% Taxi/Car Service 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% Transit (Bus) 7 100% 7 100% 60 100% 118 51% Transit (Light Rail) 131 5% 23 26% 586 26% 654 23% Walk/Bicycle 10 100% 13 77% 71 100% 157 45% 1 Access mode not reported for 41 entering trips and 177 exiting trips. 2 Access mode not reported for 79 entering trips and 244 exiting trips. Table 46 shows different information. The table shows Table 47 attempts to explore whether having a personal internal trips by the original mode of access to Mockingbird vehicle available for trips affected internal travel tendencies. Station--for example, the first row of the table shows that One might assume that a person with no vehicle available for the A.M. peak period, of the exiting people who came to would have fewer options to make off-site (external) trips, so Mockingbird Station as vehicle drivers, 31% of them went to they would make more internal trips. Accounting for effects internal destinations. The purpose of this table is to deter- of the sample sizes shown, the table does not support that mine whether people arriving by different modes have differ- assumption: internal trip capture does not exceed that for ent internal trip-making tendencies. The cells that have larger people with access to drive personal vehicles. numbers of trips provide the most useful comparisons. The Findings from surveys of two other MXDs--Atlantic Sta- cells that contain more than 300 trips have consistent inter- tion and Legacy Town Center--follow. Analyses of relation- nal trip percentages ranging from 20% to 37% internal trips, ships between the findings and causal factors are described in but even though most numbers of total trips are small, those subsequent chapters. who arrive by bus or walking/bicycling are much more prone to making more internal trips, perhaps due to fewer options. The apparent tendency of rail transit riders to make fewer Atlantic Station internal trips--at least during peak periods--may reflect that Development Characteristics many of them use transit to commute to work and are less likely to make internal peak-period trips during peak periods As with Mockingbird Station, Atlantic Station is a midtown (e.g., some of those trips may be made during midday). The redevelopment/infill project, but it is substantially larger and is small numbers of people who walk, bike, or ride buses to spread over several blocks rather than being on a single block. Mockingbird Station make further analysis speculative. The Figure 5 shows an illustrative site plan of Atlantic Station when other two MXDs surveyed for this project had fewer transit rid- it is fully complete. A dashed outer boundary line shows the ers, so they do not provide significant insight into this question. outer limits of the portions that had been completed and Table 47. Peak-period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by vehicle access--Mockingbird Station. A.M. Peak Period1 P.M. Peak Period2 Vehicle Access Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Yes (Vehicle Driver) 1,098 20% 720 30% 265 29% 462 51% Yes (Non-Vehicle Driver) 118 14% 31 52% 318 33% 571 59% No Vehicle Access 18 28% 16 31% 3,094 35% 2,795 32% 1 Automobile access not reported for 45 entering trips and 134 exiting trips. 2 Automobile access not reported for 164 entering trips and 225 exiting trips.

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42 Source: www.atlanticstation.com/images/SitePlan_large.jpg. Image is used by permission: 2010 Atlantic Station, LLC. All rights reserved. Figure 5. 2006 Atlantic Station site plan at buildout. occupied at the time surveys for this project were completed. nesses have the option of validating parking for specific The area inside the inner dashed boundary line has not been durations. Visitor parking is free for the first 2 hours, $2 up developed although some of the parking to serve that devel- to 3 hours, $3 up to 4 hours, $5 up to 5 hours, then increas- opment has been completed. Although complete, the survey ing $3 per hour to the daily maximum of $14 for more than conducted for this project did not include the IKEA store on 7 hours. Employees park free on the lowest garage level dur- the far west end because it was viewed as a non-integrated, ing their work hours. At the time of the survey, garage park- free-standing component of Atlantic Station oriented away ing supply far exceeded demand. Surface curb parking was from the remainder of the development. Figure 6 shows the generally fully occupied during normal business hours. street names and sectors of Atlantic Station. Atlantic Station Land uses in the District consist of residential, retail, office, consists of three adjacent sectors: the District, the Commons, restaurant, hotel, and cinema. Table 48 shows the number and the Village. of development units of each type. The largest retailers are Dillard's (department store), Publix (grocery store), and a shoe The District. The District is clearly the heart and most store. The retailers provide a range of products similar to active part of Atlantic Station. It is the densest and has six what can be found in a regional mall. Restaurants range from interactive land uses. The mostly commercial District is on a specialty coffee shops to high-end shops. Residential units grid of blocks extending from the south side of 14th Street to open at the time of the survey are in one high-rise build- 20th Street and from Fowler Street on the east to State Street ing at the corner of 17th and State Streets and along both on the west. Virtually the entire area north of 17th Street has sides of 16th Street (townhouses). The office space is all in three levels of parking below ground. All parking is contigu- one high-rise building at 17th and Market Streets, while the ous although parking for a few buildings has been partitioned. restaurants and retail are distributed across most of the The garages are designed so the streets on the surface are dupli- District. cated underground for ease of navigation and comprehension. The entire area north of 17th Street is conveniently walkable There is also short-term metered curb parking on most blocks due to general compactness; short block lengths (about 150 of the surface level. All spaces are pay parking although busi- to 300 ft in most cases); and an attractive walking environ-

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43 Source: www.atlanticstation.com/site_parking.php. Image is used by permission: 2010 Atlantic Station, LLC. All rights reserved. Figure 6. Schematic map of Atlantic Station, 2006. ment. There is a grade between 16th and 17th Streets that may The Village. This western sector contains only one build- discourage some from walking, but walking is viable for most ing: an IKEA furniture store. The IKEA building faces away people. from 17th Street and the remainder of Atlantic Station. It has its own parking and, as with the Commons, no strong con- The Commons. This area includes two multistory apart- nection to the District. Although walking between IKEA and ment complexes along the north (Park District) and south (Art the Commons is convenient by conventional sidewalk, little Foundry) sides of 17th Street, which has a wide median in the pedestrian activity was observed. middle of the area. Resident parking is beneath the residential units, with visitor parking along 17th Street. The walking Access environment is typical for urban areas. Typical sidewalks are provided along 17th Street. There are no special provisions Vehicular access to Atlantic Station and the District is con- other than banners that integrate The Commons with The centrated on 17th Street from both east and west. I-75 and District. Other than banners and a few signs, the two areas I-85 merge just to the north of 17th Street so Atlantic Station could easily pass for being totally disassociated. has good regional access by motor vehicle. An interchange Table 48. Atlantic Station Development (all units within the District except as noted). Land Use Occupied Development Units Largest District: 190 apartments at 17th and State; 55 townhomes south of Residential 798 DU 16th Street Commons: 553 apartments Department store 227,000 sq ft Grocery store 30,300 sq ft Retail 434,500 sq ft Shoe store 27,000 sq ft Only stores over 12,000 sq ft Office 550,600 sq ft Almost all in one building Sports bar/restaurant 19,100 sq ft Restaurant 64,600 sq ft Only restaurant over 10,000 sq ft Hotel 101 rooms One hotel Cinema 87,000 sq ft, 16 screens, 6,000 seats One cinema

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44 exists serving 14th and 17th Streets. Access to regional arte- MARTA also provides conventional bus service along 17th rial streets is via 17th Street. There is some additional access Street and along 14th Street. The 17th Street service (Route 23) to and from the south via local streets between Fowler and also connects with the Art Center Station on the east. Going State. Access to underground parking of The District is from west and south from Atlantic Station, this route extends past Fowler on the east, 16th Street on the south, State Street on Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and to down- the west, and 20th Street on the north. There are no ramps town. It runs on 30- to 40-minute headways during the day, between the three levels; all access is to a single level. Some of operating between about 5:30 A.M. and midnight. The 14th the largest buildings are garage-accessible only from one or Street service runs between the Arts Center Station and the two of the three levels; however, there are stairs, elevators, and MARTA rail west end station, providing service to the Geor- an escalator providing access between all garage levels and the gia Tech campus and an additional rail station. This route street level. Stairs are spaced closely so that stairway access (Route 98) operates on 14th Street east of State Street and has is quite convenient. Vehicular access to The Commons and approximately 40-minute headways all day. Two additional IKEA is primarily via 17th Street although 16th Street also local routes run northsouth on Northside Drive just west of provides access. the IKEA store. Those routes operate on 60-minute headways Atlantic Station has two types of transit access as Figure 7 between about 6 A.M. and 10 P.M. shows. Atlantic Station provides a dedicated free shuttle between the District and the Metropolitan Atlanta Regional Travel Survey Transit Authority (MARTA) Art Center rail station that is about 1/2 mile to the east of the District. The shuttle uses 17th The travel survey was conducted in the same manner as for Street but loops through the District. The shuttle operates on Mockingbird Station. Surveys were conducted on Tuesday 5- to 10-minute headways, between 5 A.M. and 1 A.M., covering afternoon July 11, 2006, through Thursday morning July 13, MARTA's rail system hours of 5 A.M. to 1 A.M. 2006. The surveys conducted were Source: www.atlanticstation.com/site_parking.php. Image is used by permission: 2010 Atlantic Station, LLC. All rights reserved. Figure 7. Atlantic Station transit access, 2006.

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45 Multimodal cordon count covering all access points of during two morning and two afternoon peak periods. Of the District and the Bezar townhome area plus the parking these approximately 27% were obtained during the A.M. peak garages for the Art Foundry and Park District apartment and 73% during the P.M. peak. Approximately 45% of exiting complexes; people were interviewed in the A.M. peak period while about Counts of people entering and exiting doors of each building 15% were interviewed in the much more active P.M. peak. The or business being surveyed during a particular period; results described in this report are based on expansion factors Exit interviews of people as they departed selected doors; applied to usable interviews based on sampling rates for each Pedestrian intercept interviews at one sidewalk location land use and time period as well as the businesses surveyed. between the District and the Commons to catch those not The expansion factor process is explained elsewhere in this included in the interviews in the Commons apartment com- report. plexes (custom survey to respond to local conditions); and Table 49 shows the numbers of completed and usable inter- Interviews of people using the Atlantic Station shuttle (cus- views by peak period and land use category. Interviews were tom survey to respond to local conditions). completed for about 30% of people exiting at street level (and the grocery store garage) during the A.M. peak and 15% during MARTA bus patrons were not interviewed specifically the P.M. peak. Interviews were not attempted at building because there were very few observed. The Atlantic Station entrances within the garage because it was felt that nearly all shuttle seemed to be functioning as an almost complete sub- people using those few entrances would be either leaving stitute for conventional transit access. Atlantic Station or returning to street level through the same Interviews were conducted in a manner similar to that used buildings. In the first case, the trips would be external and eas- for Mockingbird Station, with one exception: the large num- ily categorized as such. In the second case, the people would be ber of businesses and entrances precluded all being covered. All candidates for interviews as they departed from the building at large businesses were covered as was a sample of smaller ones. street level. In addition, a few retail buildings were not covered Those not surveyed (including a small number that declined with interviews due to the available survey crew and simi- permission) were accounted for by including expansion factors larity of tenants to those being surveyed. Survey results were using applicable development units (e.g., sq ft). The research expanded to cover unsurveyed buildings in accordance with team was told by onsite management that occupants of the two development units. Finally, not all residential buildings were residential developments in the Commons were similar and surveyed. Local management staff indicated that profiles of the provided permissions for only one complex. Dwelling units residents were similar to those in buildings being surveyed. Cor- were used to apply survey results to cover those units. don counts were used to factor the residential survey results. As with the Mockingbird Station interviews, some Atlantic Station interviews yielded more than one trip. All exiting trips Survey Results were obtained. Some people interviewed also provided com- Most of the findings are based on 822 usable interviews plete and usable information about their inbound trips to conducted near doorways to Atlantic Station establishments the interview location. Table 50 shows the total numbers of Table 49. Peak-period interviews, counted building exit movements, and percent interviewed--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use 1 Building Exit Percent 1 Building Exit Percent Interviews Interviews Movements Interviewed Movements Interviewed Office 15 93 16% 15 84 18% Retail 29 153 19% 266 2,138 12% Restaurant 24 29 83% 184 918 20% Residential 157 523 30% 66 305 22% Cinema2 -- -- -- 31 282 11% Hotel 21 36 58% 14 95 15% Total 246 834 30% 576 3,822 15% 1 Number of interviews conducted with travelers exiting doors of a particular land use that contained at least one usable trip. 2 Cinema not open during morning peak period.

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46 Table 50. Peak-period usable trips, counted building exit movements, and percent usable--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use 1 Building Exit Percent 1 Counted Exit Usable Trips Usable Trips Percent Usable Movements Usable Movements Office 13 93 14% 26 84 31% Retail 29 153 19% 313 2,138 15% Restaurant 26 29 90% 189 918 21% Residential 141 523 27% 56 305 18% 2 Cinema -- -- -- 38 282 14% a Hotel 37 36 103% 43 95 45% Total 246 834 30% 665 3,822 17% 1 Must include specific origin location, location of destination, and land use of destination if internal; this total includes reported exiting and entering trips made this period. 2 Cinema not open during morning peak period. a More trips reported from both exit and entering trip responses than movements counted. usable interviews available based on their points of origin. or unwilling to provide enough complete information to Interviews during the P.M. peak period yielded some second make the inbound trip usable. Finally, some otherwise com- usable trips; none were derived from the A.M. interviews. plete interviews were not usable because the inbound trip The results reported herein are based on factoring to reflect reported was not actually the immediately previous trip. sampling at each building entrance; factoring was performed Many of those trips were made outside the peak periods. First separately for each peak period. That process is described else- trips of the day from the onsite apartments did not have a where in this report. The survey results were summarized for previous trip that day. the A.M. and P.M. peak periods. The interviews reported in Table 51 differ slightly from inter- Table 51 shows a summary of completed interviews, exit- views reported in prior tables. This is because the interviews ing people, and usable trips derived from the interviews. The reported in Table 50 are associated with the land use for which total of the reported trips, if made during one of the two peak an exit trip is reported whereas previous tables reported by periods, is shown as usable trips in Table 50. Some of the where the interview occurred. reported inbound trips occurred outside the peak periods; Table 51 points out the same lesson learned from the sur- however, for many of those trips, the respondent was unable vey procedures as did the Mockingbird Station surveys: to Table 51. Peak-period interviews, exit movements, percent interviewed, and usable trips--Atlantic Station. Morning Peak Period Afternoon Peak Period Land Use Exit Percent Usable Exit Percent Usable Interviews2 Interviews2 Movements Interviewed Trips3 Movements Interviewed Trips3 Office 13 93 14% 13 15 84 18% 15 Retail 29 153 19% 30 243 2,138 11% 311 Restaurant 26 29 90% 28 167 918 18% 212 a b Residential 141 229 62% 141 79 115 69% 79 1 Cinema -- -- -- -- 32 282 11% 32 Hotel 34 36 94% 34 16 95 17% 16 Total 243 540 45% 246c 552 3,632 15% 665 1 No interviews attempted at cinema during the morning peak period since cinema closed during this period. 2 Number of interviews conducted with travelers exiting doors of a particular land use that contained at least one usable trip. 3 Must include specific origin location, location of destination, and land use of destination if internal; this total includes reported exiting and entering trips made this period. a Excludes 294 movements counted at two residential developments where no interviews were completed. b Excludes 190 movements counted at two residential developments where no interviews were completed. c Includes 3 movements counted at establishments where no or too few interviews were completed for valid sample.

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47 obtain accurate inbound trip information while conducting acteristics similar to other establishments of the same land uses, exit surveys, it is necessary to increase the amount of interview represent less than 15% of the exiting trips made. The direct practice for each interviewer (mock interviews with trainers). garage trips to the external street system accounted for about Interviewers recorded too many incomplete interviews and 20% of the total trips, a little less than for the A.M. peak period. incorrect previous trips. Most interviewers also failed to ask Table 54 contains somewhat similar information for the or record responses for all of the questions about the inbound entering trips for both peak periods. As with the similar table for trip, resulting in more incomplete inbound trip information. Mockingbird Station, this table shows the several sources for Table 51 shows that, unlike Mockingbird Station, A.M. inter- information on trips made. Trips represented by exit surveys are views were completed at retail outlets. These were almost all shown in the first column of numbers. Trips made direct from at the onsite grocery store. internally accessed parking garages to external locations are Table 52 shows, for the morning peak period, surveyed shown in the second column. Trips made using the free Atlantic trips (usable from interviews) by origin land use as well as the Station shuttle and represented by interviews conducted on the number of people exiting doors for each land use. The third shuttle are shown in the third column of numbers. The balance column represents exit movements from establishments column represents the difference between the total number of where no completed interviews occurred. These trips were counted (or prorated by sq ft) persons entering the establish- estimated based on square footage for the specific land use. ments (through public doorway or from external points to the The fourth column contains the number of drivers plus pas- garage sections with private internal access) and the trips repre- sengers who exited Atlantic Station from parking garages after sented in the prior three columns. All trips in the fourth column reaching the garages via direct internal access from establish- of numbers were assumed to be external since they had no ments above. Trips in this fourth column were assumed to all reported internal source for trips. be external since they involved trips downstairs into the below Table 55 shows the mode split of person trips to and from ground garages and a drive along the perimeter or beyond to Atlantic Station during the A.M. peak period and peak hour. another location. In almost all cases, a walk trip would take Personal vehicles account for about 80% of the inbound trips less time except between the District and the apartment com- and slightly more than 70% of the outbound trips during plexes to the west or townhouses to the south. About 46% of both periods, indicating little difference between the periods. all trips made from survey locations were represented by an Similarly, peak-period and peak-hour mode shares differed interview or direct external trips. little for other modes. Transit, including the free Atlantic Table 53 displays similar information for the P.M. peak Station shuttle, accounted for 8% of the inbound A.M. peak period. For this period, about 31% of the total trips are rep- period trips and 9% of the inbound A.M. peak-hour trips. resented by interviews or direct external trips. Unsurveyed Outbound percentages were smaller. Virtually all transit trips locations, which were judged by the research team to have char- used the free shuttle; MARTA bus service attracted almost no Table 52. Morning peak-period surveyed trips, exit movements, and percent surveyed--Atlantic Station. Exit Movements Surveyed Percent Land Use Unsurveyed Garage Trips2 Doors Total Surveyed5 Locations3 Direct4 Office 13 93 -- 66 159 50% Retail 29 153 8 136 297 56% Restaurant 26 29 -- -- 29 90% Residential 141 523 -- 68 591 35% Cinema1 -- -- -- -- -- -- Hotel 37 36 -- -- 36 100% Total 246 834 8 270 1,112 46% 1 Cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 Number of usable trip origins at each land use recorded from traveler interviews. 3 Includes locations where no interviews were attempted (prorated by sq ft) and locations where door counts were made but no usable trip origins were recorded on interviews. 4 Person-trips observed exiting onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly to an external location. 5 Includes those trips described in usable interviews or direct exits from a parking garage to the external street system.

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48 Table 53. Afternoon peak-period surveyed trips, exit movements, and percent surveyed--Atlantic Station. Exit Movements Surveyed Percent Land Use Unsurveyed Garage Trips2 Doors Total Surveyed5 Locations3 Direct4 Office 26 84 -- 585 669 91% Retail 313 2,138 532 418 3,088 24% Restaurant 189 918 115 -- 1,033 18% Residential 56 305 -- 50 355 30% 1 Cinema 38 282 -- -- 282 13% Hotel 43 95 -- -- 95 45% Total 665 3,822 647 1,053 5,522 31% 1 Cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 Number of usable trip origins at each land use recorded from traveler interviews. 3 Includes locations where no interviews were attempted (prorated by sq ft) and locations where door counts were made but no usable trip origins were recorded on interviews. 4 Person-trips observed exiting onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly to an external location. 5 Includes those trips described in usable interviews or direct exits from a parking garage to the external street system. Table 54. Peak-period person-trips entering land uses--Atlantic Station. Morning Peak Period Afternoon Peak Period Land Use Garage Transit 2 Garage Transit Survey Balance5 Total Survey 2 Balance5 Total Direct3 Direct4 Direct3 Direct4 a Office 86 829 41 41 997 55 69 17 (17) 124 Retail 114 35 24 17 190 1,769 411 66 406 2,652 a Restaurant 26 -- 31 (23) 34 542 -- 48 694 1,284 Residential 0 8 6 186 200 313 90 14 131 548 1 Cinema -- -- -- -- -- 165 -- 39 111 315 Hotel 1 -- 7 17 25 88 -- 7 0 95 Total 227 872 109 238 1,446 2,932 570 191 1,325 5,018 1 Cinema did not actively generate trips during the morning peak period. 2 Trip destinations recorded from exit interviews, expanded as described. 3 Person-trips observed entering onsite parking garages, assumed to be traveling directly from an external location. 4 Trips entering onsite land uses from external locations recorded on transit interviews. 5 Balance of person-trips entering onsite land uses; assumed to originate externally. a See Appendix C for more information. Table 55. A.M. peak-period and peak-hour person-trip cordon count-- Atlantic Station. Peak Period (7:00 A.M.10:00 A.M.) Peak Hour (8:00 A.M.9:00 A.M.) Travel Mode Trips Percent Trips Percent Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Personal Vehicle1 2,378 1,165 79% 71% 972 447 81% 72% Motorcycle 0 0 0% 0% 0 0 0% 0% Delivery Vehicle 172 216 6% 13% 46 70 4% 11% Transit2 244 56 8% 3% 104 34 9% 5% Walk 226 195 7% 12% 78 68 6% 11% Bicycle 6 4 <1% <1% 2 1 <1% <1% Total All Modes 3,026 1,636 100% 100% 1,202 620 100% 100% 1 Personal vehicle occupancies (entering/exiting): peak period 1.08/1.13; peak hour 1.05/1.12. 2 Transit trips include circulating shuttle and bus.

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49 Table 56. P.M. peak-period and peak-hour person-trip cordon count-- Atlantic Station. Peak Period (4:00 P.M.7:00 P.M.) Peak Hour (5:00 P.M.6:00 P.M.) Travel Mode Trips Percent Trips Percent Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Entering Exiting 1 Personal Vehicle 3,727 3,423 87% 88% 1,382 1,242 89% 86% Motorcycle 0 0 0% 0% 0 0 0% 0% Delivery Vehicle 50 43 1% 1% 14 18 1% 1% 2 Transit 195 243 5% 6% 72 103 5% 7% Walk 300 184 7% 5% 86 72 6% 5% Bicycle 15 4 <1% <1% 4 2 <1% <1% Total All Modes 4,287 3,897 100% 100% 1,558 1,437 100% 100% 1 Personal vehicle occupancies (entering/exiting): peak period 1.40/1.27; peak hour 1.37/1.22. 2 Transit trips include circulating shuttle and bus. Atlantic Station trips, possibly due to the fare difference, more and walking also play a role. As was found for Mockingbird frequent shuttle service, and the shuttle loop throughout the Station, the P.M. peak-period vehicle occupancies are signifi- District, which the MARTA service does not provide. cantly higher than those for the A.M. peak; this is attributable Table 56 shows similar summaries for the P.M. peak period to people going shopping or to restaurants or the cinema in and peak hour. Personal vehicles account for more of the groups of two or more during the P.M. peak. Almost none travel during the P.M. peaks, accounting for 8788% of all of those businesses are open during the A.M. peak. peak period trips and 8689% of peak-hour trips. As for the Table 57 shows the total A.M. and P.M. peak-period entering A.M. peaks, there is little difference in mode splits between and exiting trips by land use category plus the percentage of the peak period and peak hour. Deliveries account for far those that were internal. Overall A.M. peak-period internal trip fewer trips during the P.M.. The transit mode splits are simi- capture was about 12% for inbound and 17% outbound. For lar in total but more balanced between inbound and out- the P.M. peak period, the inbound and outbound internal cap- bound trips. Inbound walk trips are similar for both A.M. and ture percentages total about 44 and 38 percent, respectively. As P.M. peaks, but outbound walk trips make up a larger percent- the table shows, internal capture varies significantly by land use age of A.M. peak trips than for the P.M.. Note, however, that the as it did for Mockingbird Station. The A.M. retail percentage A.M. inbound and outbound walk volumes are fairly similar. reflects activity at the full-service grocery store, which serves From these two tables it is apparent that motor vehicles are both residential and office patrons during that period. The the primary mode of travel for Atlantic Station, but transit open restaurant was a coffee shop, similar to Mockingbird Table 57. Peak-period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by land use--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period P.M. Peak Period Land Use Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Office 990 8% 152 33% 124 45% 668 9% Retail1 135 44% 136 42% 1,431 38% 1,867 39% Restaurant 34 77% 29 48% 1,218 39% 967 60% Residential 200 0% 591 2% 543 57% 350 13% Cinema2 -- -- -- -- 315 52% 281 42% Hotel 25 4% 36 95% 95 92% 94 86% Total All Trips 1,384 12% 944 17% 3,726 44% 4,227 38% 1 Retail open during A.M. peak period was primarily grocery store. 2 Cinema not open to customers during morning peak period.

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50 Table 58. Percent distribution of internal trip destinations for exiting trips-- Atlantic Station, A.M. peak period. Destination Land Use Summary Origin Land Use 2 3 Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 28 5 0 -- 0 33 67 100 152 2 1 Retail 29 -- 13 0 -- 0 42 58 100 136 1 Restaurant 31 14 -- 0 -- 3 48 52 100 29 Residential 1 1 0 --1 -- 0 2 98 100 591 Cinema3 -- -- -- -- --1 -- -- -- -- -- 1 Hotel 75 14 6 0 -- -- 95 5 100 36 All 8 6 3 0 -- 0 17 83 100 944 Origins 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 Retail open during A.M. peak period was primarily grocery store. 3 Cinema not open to customer during morning peak period. Station. The hotel appeared to be heavily oriented to serving the Table 59 shows similar information for the P.M. peak period. onsite office building, which was the only nearby office build- A few land use pairs account for most of the internal trips, sim- ing although others exist about 1/2 mile away. For the P.M. peak ilar to Mockingbird Station; however, the specific pairs are not period, the internal percentage of entering trips was consistent the same. This is a result of the residential units being farther across most uses, other than the hotel, which again appeared to removed from the non-residential uses and different balances be very internally oriented. There was more variation in trips of land uses. During the P.M. peak, the heaviest percentages of exiting Atlantic Station buildings during the P.M. peak period, interaction are retail-restaurant (both directions) and from ranging between 9 and 86%. The office low percentage is reflec- retail to restaurant and residential, cinema to retail, and from tive of commuters going home, or at least off-site, after work. hotel to retail and restaurant. The low residential percentage is a little surprising, but the Table 60 shows the A.M. peak period percentage distribu- longer distance to other uses may be influential. tion of inbound trips to each destination land use from each Table 58 shows the percent distribution of trips from origin land use. The highest inbound internal capture per- each origin land use to other land uses within Atlantic Station centages are retail from office and restaurant from office and as well as to external destinations. As was explained for retail. Many of those trips may result from trips for morning Mockingbird Station, trips between similar land uses are not coffee or picking up a lunch on the way to work. included because they would not be counted as external trips Table 61 shows similar information for the P.M. peak period. for single-use developments. Some land use pairs have little The largest internal capture percentages are to office, restaurant, interchange; others have extensive interaction, as described cinema, and hotel from retail and to restaurant from retail, cin- in the preceding paragraph. ema, and hotel. These two tables demonstrate that there is a Table 59. Percent distribution of internal trip destinations for exiting trips-- Atlantic Station, P.M. peak period. Destination Land Use Summary Origin Land Use Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 6 3 0 0 0 9 91 100 668 1 Retail 2 -- 19 13 4 1 39 61 100 1,867 Restaurant 1 41 --1 3 8 7 60 40 100 967 1 Residential 0 9 3 -- 0 1 13 87 100 350 1 Cinema 2 21 11 8 -- 0 42 58 100 281 Hotel 0 16 68 2 0 --1 86 14 100 94 All Origins 1 13 11 7 4 2 38 62 100 4,227 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology.

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51 Table 60. Percent distribution of internal trip origins for entering trips-- Atlantic Station, A.M. peak period. Origin Land Use Summary Destination Land Use 2 3 Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 4 1 0 -- 3 8 92 100 990 2 1 Retail 32 -- 3 5 -- 4 44 56 100 135 1 Restaurant 21 50 -- 0 -- 6 77 23 100 34 Residential 0 0 0 --1 -- 0 0 100 100 200 Cinema3 -- -- -- -- --1 -- -- -- -- -- 1 Hotel 0 0 4 0 -- -- 4 96 100 25 All 4 4 1 1 -- 2 12 88 100 1,384 Destinations 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology. 2 Retail open during A.M. peak period was primarily grocery store. 3 Cinema not open to customer during morning peak period. different internal capture rate by direction, similar to that for Table 63 shows similar information for Atlantic Station, but Mockingbird Station. This should be no surprise as some of the by original mode of access. The mode shown is that used for peak period activities are very directional (e.g., commuting to the first trip to Atlantic Station, not for the trip being reported; work in A.M., from work in P.M.). therefore, if a person arrived early in the morning driving a Table 62 shows the internal person trips and percentages for vehicle but is interviewed during a walk trip, the mode of both peak periods by mode of travel for the reported trip. Dur- access is vehicle driver. Hence, for those who originally entered ing the A.M. peak, there are a few internal vehicle driver and Atlantic Station by driving a personal vehicle, during the A.M. vehicle passenger trips. All walk and bicycle trips are internal. peak period 6% of the inbound trips were from internal origins However, no taxi or transit trips are internal. Unlike Mocking- and 26% of the outbound trips from Atlantic Station build- bird Station, Atlantic Station is larger and encourages use of ings were to internal destinations. During the A.M. peak period, personal vehicles for some trips; the maximum internal trip there were few enough non-vehicle driver trips that the differ- length is about 0.6 miles. ences in internal trip percentages may be nearly meaningless. In the P.M. peak period, the internal capture percentages However, during the P.M. peak period, those with a personal are significant for trips by all modes. Some combination of vehicle as their access mode have a lower percentage of inter- after-work shopping, dinner, or cinema may be the cause nal trips than most other modes. People who originally arrived of higher vehicle use for internal trips. Visitors who are less by walk/bike and circulator modes tend to have higher inter- familiar with specific locations or distances may view the nal trip percentages. Atlantic Station shuttle as more convenient for internal Table 64 reports internal capture percentages by whether trips. or not the trip-maker had access to a vehicle for the trip. The Table 61. Percent distribution of internal trip origins for entering trips-- Atlantic Station, P.M. peak period. Origin Land Use Summary Destination Land Use Total Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Internal External Total Trips Office --1 31 8 0 6 0 45 55 100 124 1 Retail 3 -- 28 2 4 1 38 62 100 1,431 Restaurant 2 29 --1 1 2 5 39 61 100 1,218 1 Residential 1 46 6 -- 4 0 57 43 100 543 1 Cinema 1 26 25 0 -- 0 52 48 100 315 Hotel 0 17 71 5 0 --1 92 8 100 95 All Destinations 2 20 16 1 3 2 44 56 100 3,726 1 Internal trips within a land use are not included in internal trip capture methodology.

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52 Table 62. Peak period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by mode of travel--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period1 P.M. Peak Period2 Mode of Travel Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Vehicle Driver 1,110 4% 761 6% 2,125 18% 2,336 17% Vehicle Passenger 72 10% 26 27% 215 27% 358 16% Taxi/Car Service 0 0% 0 0% 18a 100% 43 42% a Transit (Bus) 0 0% 17 0% 15 100% 101 15% Transit (Circulating Shuttle) 86 0% 9 0% 325 41% 406 62% Walk/Bicycle 116 100% 129 90% 1,026 100% 1,158 89% 1 Travel mode not reported for 2 exiting trips. 2 Travel mode not reported for 2 entering trips and 25 exiting trips. a Limited sample; possible erroneous response. Table 63. Peak-period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by mode of access--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period1 P.M. Peak Period2 Mode of Access Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Vehicle Driver 1,141 6% 283 26% 2,552 32% 2,645 31% Vehicle Passenger 70 7% 31 16% 277 43% 409 29% Taxi/Car Service 1 100% 1 100% 22 100% 22 100% Transit (Bus) 36 100% 56 64% 40 100% 152 26% Transit (Circulating Shuttle) 89 3% 4 75% 468 59% 331 84% Walk/Bicycle 11 100% 18 61% 86 100% 129 68% 1 Access mode not reported for 36 entering trips and 551 exiting trips. 2 Access mode not reported for 281 entering trips and 539 exiting trips. Table 64. Peak period person-trips and percent internal trip capture by vehicle access--Atlantic Station. A.M. Peak Period1 P.M. Peak Period2 Automobile Access Entering Exiting Entering Exiting Percent Percent Percent Percent Trips Trips Trips Trips Internal Internal Internal Internal Yes (Vehicle Driver) 1,206 6% 302 24% 2,710 30% 2,857 29% Yes (Non-Vehicle Driver) 58 24% 14 100% 71 49% 78 45% No Vehicle Access 54 13% 20 35% 169 21% 107 34% 1 Automobile access not reported for 66 entering trips and 608 exiting trips. 2 Automobile access not reported for 776 entering trips and 1,185 exiting trips.