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7 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background with a variety of interactive land uses, but relying on the public road system and separate parking facilities for most Problem Statement of the interaction. NCHRP Project 8-51, "Enhancing Internal Trip Capture Activity Centers: An activity center is a well-defined, fo- Estimation for Mixed-Use Developments," was undertaken cused concentration of development with high density and to improve the methodology(s) used to estimate the extent to a high mix of land uses. An activity center usually meets the which trips made within mixed-use developments are inter- above expanded definition of an MXD. An activity center is nalized or satisfied with both origin and destination within generally very large compared with other MXDs in its urban the development. Such estimates are important in determin- area and usually occupies at least several blocks. Perimeter ing the quantities of external trips generated by mixed-use Center in Atlanta is a good example of an activity center. developments. This is not to be confused with shopping centers (for which To fully understand the project, it is first necessary to under- ITE has specific trip generation rates) (4, pp. 561562); how- stand some of the terms used in describing the project. Terms ever, for the purposes of this project, activity centers are not are defined as follows: a focus of this research, but the estimation methodology may be adaptable for use in activity centers. Mixed-Use Development: A mixed-use development, ac- Neighborhoods and Subareas: ITE notes that any area that cording to the Urban Land Institute (ULI), is a single phys- has a specific identity and generates large amounts of traffic ically and functionally integrated development of three or could be considered an area or subarea with unique trans- more revenue-producing uses developed in conformance portation issues (4, p. 561). For the purposes of this project, with a coherent plan (3, pp. 45). The Institute of Trans- neighborhoods can be classified within this concept when portation Engineers (ITE) suggests two interacting land they exhibit a mix of interactive uses. Neighborhoods and uses compose a mixed-use development (MXD) (2). MXDs subareas are not specifically within the focus of this re- have internal pedestrian connectivity and share parking search; however, as with activity centers, the methodology among some or most uses. An example of a true MXD developed by this research may be adaptable for use in would be a galleria consisting of retail, hotel, office, restau- neighborhoods and subareas. rant, and entertainment uses, possibly in separate build- Transit-Oriented Development: According to the Ameri- ings, but interconnected and sharing parking facilities. For can Public Transportation Association (APTA), a transit- the purposes of this project, it has been deemed appropri- oriented development (TOD) is a compact, MXD near new ate and necessary to expand this definition to include or existing public transportation infrastructure that serves multi-use developments. A multi-use development is a real housing, transportation, and neighborhood goals. Its prox- estate project of separate uses of differing and complemen- imity to transit services and pedestrian-oriented design en- tary, interacting land uses that do not necessarily share courages residents and workers to drive their cars less and parking and may not be internally interconnected except ride mass transit more (5). For the purposes of this project, by public street and/or other public transportation facili- the research team stipulates that the development must be ties. A multi-use development example would be an activ- not only near transit, but the transit service must also be ity center such as Tysons Corner in northern Virginia, also convenient to reach, the service must link the development