Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 79


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 78
78 Of the trips entering onsite residential, a total of about land uses tend to be more concentrated into specific areas 35% arrived from an onsite origin--almost 32% from of the site. the shopping centers and nearly 4% from the fast-food Hence, while the three study sites are truly integrated MXDs, restaurant. they are not a truly homogenous trio of samples. This is sim- ilar to most land use categories included in the ITE trip gener- ation database, although these three developments are more Comparison of Findings for Pilot similar than those included in many ITE land use categories. It Study Sites and Florida Sites is also important to note that the three developments represent Similarities and Differences Among a range of typical conditions in which MXDs are developed. the Developments The three Florida sites--Village Commons, Country Isles, and Boca del Mar--are less compact than the sites surveyed in The three MXDs surveyed in this project's pilot studies-- this project. The Florida developments are structured sets of Mockingbird Station, Atlantic Station, and Legacy Town development pods separated by parking lots or streets; they are Center--are similar in terms of the uses they have and the less well connected, less compact, and also have fewer interact- general proximities of their non-residential uses. All three ing uses than the three developments surveyed in this project. are highly interconnected. All three are very walkable in their The six developments together could be considered repre- central areas (where commercial uses are located). All three sentative of the range of types of MXDs in the range of 1/2 to have specialty retail and a range of restaurants from specialty 3 million gross sq ft of development. They are much larger coffee shops to high-end restaurants. All three have a cinema. and more diverse than a corner development that might Most commercial and retail businesses in each of the three consist of an office building that includes retail and restau- developments are small; a few would be considered medium- rant uses. On the other extreme, the six developments are sized. All have a variety of restaurants. Only Atlantic Station not as fully self-contained as a downtown or even a major has a large retailer--a national chain department store. suburban activity center; hence, use of the data from these However, there are differences. Mockingbird Station is very developments should not be considered applicable to either compact. Driving between internal destinations is an incon- very small MXDs or downtowns without having data that venience compared with walking. The maximum walking dis- confirm similarities. tance is about 700 ft. There is a rail transit station next to and Findings from this project were compared with those con- directly connected to the development and transit is used as tained in NCHRP Report 323: Travel Characteristics at Large- a significant mode of access; that station is also served by Scale Suburban Activity Centers (26), based on limited data in six bus routes. The apartment building sits in the middle of that report on internal capture. As noted previously, suburban and on top of the central commercial building. Mocking- activity centers--probably due to their size and greater mix- bird Station has no hotel. use uses and choices--have a broader range of internal capture Atlantic Station's main residential area extends away from percentages. While the surveys conducted obtained slightly dif- the commercial area and is up to 3,400 ft away. There is a major grocery store there. There is also the retail department ferent data, internal capture for segments of suburban activity store, the only one among the three developments. Transit center populations ranged between 6% and 68% with averages service that is used by Atlantic Station patrons and residents among activity centers surveyed ranging from 14% to 58% for is via a dedicated shuttle to a nearby MARTA rail station about specific population types (e.g., office employees). a mile away. One MARTA bus route serves the area conve- niently, and almost no use was made of it by persons going to Internal Trip-Making and from Atlantic Station. While Mockingbird Station and Atlantic Station both have Tables 94 through 97 summarize the internal capture per- midtown locations and were redevelopment sites in the mid- centages found for the three developments surveyed as part dle of fully developed areas, Legacy Town Center is an outer of this project plus the three Florida sites (P.M. data available suburban development within a rapidly developing area. At only). The tables show internal capture percentages for the the time of the survey, the area surrounding Legacy Town origin ends of trips as well as for the destination ends, similar Center is fully or almost fully developed. Others are in var- to what was shown in the findings for each development. As is ious stages of partial development. Overall the area within shown in previous tables, there are no values for trips between about 2 miles is roughly two-thirds developed. Transit is the same land uses because ITE trip generation rates already virtually unused and has little presence although a hotel shut- reflect trips within the same land use on the same site. Bold tle does provide service for its patrons to nearby destinations. italicized percentages are the highest for each land use pair While Legacy Town Center is well connected internally, its combination.

OCR for page 78
79 Table 94. Unconstrained internal capture rates for exiting trips, all sites--A.M. peak period. Origin Land Destination Land Use MXD Site Use Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Atlantic Station 28 5 0 -- 0 Legacy Town Center 0 8 0 -- 0 Mockingbird Station -- 63 1 -- -- Office Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 29 13 0 -- 0 Legacy Town Center 17 6 14 -- 0 Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Retail Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 31 14 0 -- 3 Legacy Town Center 9 2 4 -- 1 Mockingbird Station 25 -- 3 -- -- Restaurant Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 1 1 0 -- 0 Legacy Town Center 1 1 7 -- 0 Mockingbird Station 2 -- 20 -- -- Residential Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station -- -- -- -- -- Legacy Town Center -- -- -- -- -- Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Cinema Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 75 14 6 0 -- Legacy Town Center 0 0 9 0 -- Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Hotel Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Table 94 shows and compares the distributions of internal amounts of office and restaurant space exchanging interacting trip destinations for exiting trips during the A.M. peak period. trips; the proximity and quality of connections between the Data are available for only the three sites surveyed for this interacting land uses (data available for those two factors); project. It is helpful to compare the internal capture percent- similar off-site opportunities; and the relative attractiveness ages by land use pair. of the destination as that type of land use (data not available Table 94 shows a range of internal capture percentages for the last two considerations). For example, the 63% office among the three developments for many of the land use to restaurant at Mockingbird Station results in part due to a pairs--for example, for trips from office to restaurant, the per- 200-ft walking distance to a popular specialty coffee shop. centages found were 5%, 8%, and 63%, respectively. The per- The relationships of internal capture percentage to trip end centages are a product of a number of factors, including the constraints and proximity are examined later in this chapter.

OCR for page 78
80 The highest percentages found for each land use pair in Of the cells in Table 94 where morning peak period data for Table 94 result from actual survey findings. The fact that all three developments are available, only two cells show one lower percentages occurred elsewhere means only that the percentage substantially higher than the other two: office-to- conditions--mainly balance between origin and destination restaurant and residential-to-restaurant, both at Mockingbird land use demands for the trips between them plus the prox- Station. Both of these involve a popular coffee shop very close imity (or other factors for which data are not available)--were to the apartment building entrance and the office building not as ideal. These highest percentages represent the most entrance. It is natural that a high percentage of those types unconstrained interchanges surveyed among the six sites-- of trips would go to the adjacent onsite coffee shop during that is, the prevailing conditions reflect the best match result- the A.M. peak. ing in the most interactions between the two land uses from Table 95 shows similar comparisons for the P.M. peak- among the developments surveyed. period exiting trips. Data are available for all six developments. Table 95. Unconstrained internal capture rates for exiting trips, all sites--P.M. peak period. Origin Land Destination Land Use MXD Site Use Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Atlantic Station 6 3 0 0 0 Legacy Town Center 0 1 2 0 0 Mockingbird Station 9 4 2 0 -- Office Boca Del Mar 0 0 0 -- -- Country Isles 20 0 0 -- -- Village Commons 6 0 1 -- -- Atlantic Station 2 19 13 4 1 Legacy Town Center 1 29 26 0 5 Mockingbird Station 1 20 7 4 -- Retail Boca Del Mar 0 0 3 -- -- Country Isles 1 2 5 -- -- Village Commons 0 0 7 -- -- Atlantic Station 1 41 3 8 7 Legacy Town Center 2 10 18 6 3 Mockingbird Station 3 38 3 2 -- Restaurant Boca Del Mar 0 18 6 -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons 0 4 4 -- -- Atlantic Station 0 9 3 0 1 Legacy Town Center 4 6 21 0 3 Mockingbird Station 1 31 11 0 -- Residential Boca Del Mar 0 42 2 -- -- Country Isles 0 25 2 -- -- Village Commons 0 25 2 -- -- Atlantic Station 2 21 11 8 0 Legacy Town Center 0 8 31 2 2 Mockingbird Station 0 17 25 8 -- Cinema Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 0 16 68 2 0 Legacy Town Center 0 5 33 0 0 Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Hotel Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- --

OCR for page 78
81 Because there are more percentages, there are fewer cells would be for convenience and would possibly go to the clos- where one value far exceeds all others when at least three val- est location available, although more specialized needs might ues are given. require trips to/from external locations. Table 96 shows a similar comparison for entering trips Table 97 shows internal capture percentages for entering during the morning peak period. No cell containing three trips during the P.M. peak period. Many cells show consis- percentages has a single value far exceeding the others. The tent percentages or a range with values spread throughout. higher percentages are for interchanges that typically involve A few cells show three or more percentages and a single few trips. The high percentages in this table involve trips enter- value much higher than others. These are to office from ing Atlantic Station's coffee shop from the grocery and to the retail (Atlantic Station); from residential to office (Legacy grocery from the office building. Both of these types of trips Town Center); and from restaurant to retail (Mockingbird Table 96. Unconstrained internal capture rates for entering trips, all sites-- A.M. peak period. Destination Origin Land Use MXD Site Land Use Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Atlantic Station 4 1 0 -- 3 Legacy Town Center 3 9 3 -- 0 Mockingbird Station -- 14 1 -- -- Office Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 32 3 5 -- 4 Legacy Town Center 0 8 17 -- 0 Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Retail Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 21 50 0 -- 6 Legacy Town Center 1 1 18 -- 6 Mockingbird Station 23 -- 20 -- -- Restaurant Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 0 0 0 -- 0 Legacy Town Center 0 2 4 -- 0 Mockingbird Station 0 -- 5 -- -- Residential Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station -- -- -- -- -- Legacy Town Center -- -- -- -- -- Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Cinema Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 0 0 4 0 -- Legacy Town Center 0 0 3 0 -- Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Hotel Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- --

OCR for page 78
82 Table 97. Unconstrained internal capture rates for entering trips, all sites-- P.M. peak period. Destination Origin Land Use MXD Site Land Use Office Retail Restaurant Residential Cinema Hotel Atlantic Station 31 8 0 6 0 Legacy Town Center 6 30 57 0 0 Mockingbird Station 5 19 2 0 -- Office Boca Del Mar 0 0 0 -- -- Country Isles 2 -- 0 -- -- Village Commons 0 0 0 -- -- Atlantic Station 3 28 2 4 1 Legacy Town Center 0 17 10 1 2 Mockingbird Station 5 50 9 3 -- Retail Boca Del Mar 0 1 2 -- -- Country Isles 8 0 3 -- -- Village Commons 3 1 3 -- -- Atlantic Station 2 29 1 2 5 Legacy Town Center 0 12 14 2 5 Mockingbird Station 1 16 2 3 -- Restaurant Boca Del Mar 0 1 2 -- -- Country Isles 0 27 3 -- -- Village Commons 0 0 4 -- -- Atlantic Station 1 46 6 4 0 Legacy Town Center 1 15 16 0 0 Mockingbird Station 3 19 10 4 -- Residential Boca Del Mar 0 32 4 -- -- Country Isles 0 23 -- -- -- Village Commons 4 30 2 -- -- Atlantic Station 1 26 25 0 0 Legacy Town Center 0 0 32 0 0 Mockingbird Station 1 14 7 0 -- Cinema Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Atlantic Station 0 17 71 5 0 Legacy Town Center 0 13 10 12 1 Mockingbird Station -- -- -- -- -- Hotel Boca Del Mar -- -- -- -- -- Country Isles -- -- -- -- -- Village Commons -- -- -- -- -- Station). Atlantic Station has almost twice as much retail as many people were seen leaving restaurants during happy any of the other six developments; it has the only depart- hour and strolling along the fronts of stores and entering a ment store and that store is immediately next to the office few to look at what was being sold. Atlantic Station and building. That may explain the relatively higher portion of Legacy Town Center are somewhat less compact although P.M. trips entering office from retail. Very few trips enter they offer a similar opportunity. The Legacy Town Center office buildings during the P.M. peak period. For those that area had more off-site shopping opportunities nearby than do, it is not surprising that most trips from residential did Mockingbird Station or Atlantic Station. Hence, the dif- would begin close by in Legacy Town Center. More distant ferences shown in Table 97 appear logical. The three Florida trips from home would be expected to wait until the next developments are far less compact and would be expected to day. Because of the compactness of Mockingbird Station, have less of this activity.