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10 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Service effectiveness measures, in which public consumption statistics are expressed in rela- tion to service outputs (e.g., trips per hour). Cost-effectiveness measures, in which resource inputs are expressed in relation to public con- sumption statistics (e.g., costs per trip taken). Detailed Performance Assessments Are Possible Using these measures, program operators can monitor their performance. They can do this by measuring changes in their own performance over time or by comparing their statistics to those of other operators or to national statistics. Measuring changes in their own performance over time often is preferable because comparisons with other systems may be difficult unless one can be assured that the same kinds of data collection procedures are being used--and this comparability of measurement from community to community is precisely the objective of this project. By using detailed measures of performance, it is possible to obtain more detailed insights into a program's operations, both its strengths and weaknesses. Program managers who have a detailed understanding of their programs' strengths and weaknesses will be able to recognize significant opportunities for improvements. For a transportation service, some of these more detailed per- formance assessments would include the following: Changes over time: Over several years, time, total passengers, hours, costs, and revenues should be measured by specific days, months, and years, and the percent changes from the previous time periods should be highlighted. Performance within components: For example, if a transportation service has fixed routes, the most and least cost-effective routes should be examined, using the kinds of statistics men- tioned previously and comparing changes over time. If there are different categories of fares, each fare category should be tracked (and perhaps broken down by route, time of year, and other factors). Performance within activities or functional cost centers: For example, maintenance costs per hour and per mile should be examined to determine if there are problems with the level of maintenance being performed (or perhaps there is a problem with the ways in which certain operators are driving). Performance for specific components: Some operations track certain kinds of information for each particular vehicle in use, including the miles per gallon for each vehicle, total operat- ing costs for each vehicle, repair and maintenance costs, and the current depreciated value of each vehicle. Simple Data Provide Rich Measures Table 4-1 identifies some simple measures for these data. Currently observed issues and prob- lems with the collection and reporting of these simple measures are listed in this table. If the information shown in Table 4-1 were available, high-quality cost reporting procedures could be used: first to better manage community transportation programs and second to identify the appropriate amounts that all partners in a coordinated community transportation system should pay for their shares of the services. The information needed includes total dollar costs (i.e., all funds expended in all categories of expenses) to provide the services described in the follow- ing four variables: Vehicle Miles--the miles a vehicle is scheduled to or actually travels from its point of depar- ture to go into service to when it pulls in from service.