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Glossary Note: Terms shown in boldface and italics throughout TCRP Report 144 are defined in this Glossary. Key Transportation Concepts Access: The opportunity to reach a given destination within a certain timeframe or without sig- nificant physical, social, or economic barriers. Accessibility: The extent to which facilities, including transit vehicles, are barrier-free and can be used by all persons, including wheelchair users and those with disabilities. ADA: See Americans with Disabilities Act under Federal Legislation and Programs. Advance Reservation Scheduling: Passengers call in advance and reserve a ride for a particu- lar date and time. This is used in demand-responsive transportation systems. Transit systems may set limits on the minimum and maximum advance reservation times before the requested trip. Advance trip reservations allow the scheduler/dispatcher to identify ridesharing opportunities and assign rides to vehicles for the most efficient service delivery. A drawback to allowing requests far in advance of the desired trip is that no-shows may be more frequent than with real-time scheduling. Brokerage: In general, an organization that functions as an interface between transportation providers and users. The transportation broker may centralize vehicle dispatching, recordkeeping, vehicle maintenance, and other functions under contractual arrangements with agencies, muni- cipalities, and other organizations. Carpool: A carpool is a type of transportation arrangement (often for commuter trips) in which two or more individuals share a regular trip in an automobile. The driver may be the same for every trip or may rotate among the riders. Carpools typically provide door-to-door service, change when a rider's travel needs change, and may be arranged on an informal basis or through a rideshare pro- gram or brokerage. Casualty and Liability Costs: The cost elements covering protection of the transportation agency from loss through insurance programs, compensation of others for their losses due to acts for which the transportation agency is liable, and the costs of a miscellaneous category of corpo- rate losses. Central Transfer Point: A central meeting place where routes or zonal demand-responsive buses intersect so that passengers may transfer. Routes are often timed to facilitate transferring. That is, routes with the same headways are scheduled to arrive at the central transfer point at the 42
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Glossary 43 same time and depart once passengers have had time to transfer. When all routes arrive and depart at the same time, the system is called a pulse system. The central transfer point simplifies trans- fers when there are many routes (particularly radial routes), several different modes, and/or para- transit zones. A downtown retail area is often an appropriate site for a central transfer point, as it is likely to be a popular destination, a place of traffic congestion and limited parking, and a place where riders are likely to feel safe waiting for the next bus. Strategic placement of the transfer point can attract riders to the system and may provide an opportunity for joint marketing promotions with local merchants. Charter Service: Transportation service offered to the public on an exclusive basis (either as individuals or as groups). It is provided with a vehicle that is licensed to render charter service and engaged at a specific price for the trip or period of time, usually on a reservation or contrac- tual basis. Typically charter service is contracted on a one-time or limited basis and is used to provide transportation on sight-seeing tours and to recreational destinations, sometimes on an overnight basis. Over-the-road coaches (intercity buses), typically equipped with baggage com- partments, comfortable seats, and restrooms, are typically used in charter service. Public trans- portation operators that receive federal and other public subsidies may only operate charter services under limited conditions. Checkpoint Service: This term is used interchangeably with point deviation service. Riders are picked up and taken to their own destinations or to transfer points. Circulator: A bus that makes frequent trips around a small geographic area with numerous stops around the route. It is typically operated in a downtown area or area attracting tourists, where park- ing is limited, roads are congested, and trip generators are spread around the area. It may be oper- ated all day or only at times of peak demand, such as rush hour or lunch time. Commercial Drivers License (CDL): The standardized driver's license required of bus and heavy truck drivers in every state. It covers drivers of any vehicle manufactured to seat 15 or more passengers (plus driver) or more than 13 tons gross vehicle weight. The CDL was mandated by the federal government in the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986. Complementary Paratransit Service: Demand-responsive service which is operated in addition to fixed route service to accommodate persons who cannot ride the fixed route service because their disability prevents it. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), public entities which operate fixed route service (excluding commuter service) are required to provide complementary paratransit with service characteristics equivalent to the fixed route service. The ADA is very spe- cific in what constitutes equivalent service and what kinds of persons must be provided with this service. A plan describing the service which documents the planning process must be submitted to the Federal Transit Administration regional office and updated annually. Connector Service: Service in which a transfer to or from another transit system or mode is the focal point. An example of this is service provided under the Greyhound Rural Connector pro- gram: local transit providers operate service that brings people to and from the Greyhound sta- tion. This type of connector service is also known as feeder service. Connector service also may connect two different transit systems (such as in two adjacent cities). It is often useful in improv- ing service efficiency and effectiveness when important destinations, such as medical centers, are located beyond the transit system's service area. Consolidation: Restructuring transportation services in a community to serve current and addi- tional riders with only one transportation service provider (or many fewer transportation providers than in the past). Coordination: Coordination means pooling the transportation resources and activities of several agencies. The owners of transportation assets talk to each other to find ways to mutually
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44 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation benefit their agencies and their customers. Coordination models can range in scope from shar- ing information, to sharing equipment and facilities, to integrated scheduling and dispatching of services, to the provision of services by only one transportation provider (with other former providers now purchasing services). Coordination may involve human service agencies work- ing with each other or with mass transit operations. Curb-to-Curb Service: A service that picks up and delivers passengers at the curb or roadside, unlike door-to-door service that picks up and delivers passengers to their doors. Curb-to-curb services generally do not include any passenger assistance other than for actual boarding and alighting. The passengers are responsible for getting themselves from their homes or other build- ings to the curb. Fixed route service is always provided curb-to-curb, while demand-responsive service may be provided curb-to-curb or door-to-door. Curb-to-curb is more efficient for the transit system, but door-to-door provides a higher level of service. Deadhead Hours: Those hours when vehicles are operated without revenue passengers. Deadhead Miles: Those miles when vehicles are operated without revenue passengers. Demand-Responsive Service: Service to individuals that is activated based on passenger requests. Usually passengers call the scheduler or dispatcher and request rides for particular dates and times. A trip is scheduled for that passenger, which may be canceled by the passenger. Usually involves curb-to-curb or door-to-door service. Trips may be scheduled on an advanced reserva- tion basis or in "real-time." Usually smaller vehicles are used to provide demand-responsive ser- vice. This type of service usually provides the highest level of service to the passenger but is the most expensive for the transit system to operate in terms of cost per trip. In rural areas with rela- tively high populations of elderly persons and persons with disabilities, demand-responsive ser- vice is sometimes the most appropriate type of service. Sub-options within this service type are discussed in order of least structured to most structured, in terms of routing and scheduling. Pure Demand-Responsive Service: Drivers pick up and drop off passengers at any point in the service area, based on instructions from the dispatcher. In pure demand-responsive systems, the dispatcher combines immediate requests, advance reservations, and subscription service for the most efficient use of each driver's time. Zonal Demand-Responsive Service: The service area is divided into zones. Buses pick up and drop off passengers only within the assigned zone. When the drop off is in another zone, the dispatcher chooses a meeting point at the zone boundary for passenger transfer or a cen- tral transfer is used. This system ensures that a vehicle will always be within each zone when rides are requested. Flexibly Routed and Scheduled Services: Flexibly routed and scheduled services have some characteristics of both fixed route and demand-responsive services. In areas where demand for travel follows certain patterns routinely, but the demand for these patterns is not high enough to warrant a fixed route, service options such as checkpoint service, point deviation, route deviation, service routes, or subscription service might be the answer. These are all examples of flexible routing and schedules, and each may help the transit system make its demand-responsive services more efficient while still maintaining much of the flexibility of demand responsiveness. Destination: A place at which a passenger ultimately disembarks from a vehicle; the point at which a trip terminates. Dial-A-Ride Service: A name that is commonly used for demand-responsive service. It is help- ful in marketing the service to the community, as the meaning of "dial-a-ride" may be more self- evident than "demand-responsive" to someone unfamiliar with transportation terms.
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Glossary 45 Dispatcher: A person who schedules and dispatches service vehicles to carry passengers. Dis- patchers keep records, logs, and schedules of the calls that they receive and of the transportation vehicles that they monitor and control. Many dispatchers employ computer-aided dispatch sys- tems to accomplish these tasks. Door-to-Door Service: A service that picks up passengers at the door of their place of origin and delivers them to the door of their destination. The driver pulls the vehicle off the road if possible and may escort or physically assist the passenger if needed. Door-to-door service provides a higher level of assistance than curb-to-curb service and is typically used for passengers with severe physi- cal disabilities. Duplication of Services: Duplication or overlapping services happens when different agencies offer basically the same services within the defined areas. Their vehicles may travel the same routes, offer similar level of services, maintain the same operating hours, or serve the same tar- get populations. Elderly and Handicapped (E&H): Anachronistic terminology for special transportation plan- ning and services for persons with special needs; current Federal Transit Administration (FTA) terminology is persons with disabilities. Express Bus Service: Express bus service characteristics include direct service from a limited number of origins to a limited number of destinations with no intermediate stops. Typically, express bus service is fixed route/fixed schedule and is used for longer distance commuter trips. The term may also refer to a bus which makes a limited number of stops while a local bus makes many stops along the same route but as a result takes much longer. Express bus service usually uses highways where they are available. Feeder Service: Local transportation service that provides passengers with connections to a longer-distance transportation service. Like connector service, feeder service is service in which a transfer to or from another transit system, such as an intercity bus route, is the focal point or primary destination. An example of this is service provided under the Greyhound Rural Connector program: local transit providers operate service which brings people to and from the Greyhound station. Fixed Route: Transportation service on a prescribed path or route that does not vary. The sched- ule may be fixed or flexible (see jitney or shuttle service). Passengers may be required to wait at des- ignated stops, or flag stops may be permitted. Usually, larger vehicles are used to provide fixed route service. Fixed Schedule: Predetermined times at which a vehicle is to arrive at a certain location. The actual bus route may be fixed or flexible. A flexible route combines fixed schedule stops with demand-responsive stops (see checkpoint, point deviation, and route deviation). Group Service: Used most often in charter or contracted service, a bus trip is provided to a group of passengers who ride between a single origin and destination. The riders may have some charac- teristics in common and travel together in the same vehicle. This type of service is commonly used by senior centers and other human service agencies that take their clients on field trips and shop- ping trips as a group. Guaranteed Ride Home: Refers to programs that guarantee riders a ride home in case they cannot take the same mode home if they need a ride after the regular service hours of the trans- portation service (e.g., if they need to work late or if an emergency occurs). Headway: The length of time between vehicles moving in the same direction on a particular route. Headways are called short if the time between vehicles is short and long if the time between them is long. When headways are short, the service is said to be operating at a high frequency; if headways are long, service is operating at a low frequency.
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46 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Home-Based Work Trip: A trip to or from home for the purpose of the traveler's employment. Human Service Agency Transportation: [A] Transportation for clients of a specific human service agency. Such service may be limited to a specific trip purpose; it is often limited to only the clients of that human service agency. [B] Transportation provided by a human service agency. Individuals with Disabilities: Any person who by reason of illness, injury, age, congenital mal- function, or other permanent or temporary incapacity or disability is unable, without special facil- ities, to use local transit facilities and services as effectively as persons who are not so affected. This definition is part of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Intercity Bus Service: Intercity bus service provides long distance trip service between cities, often as part of a large network of intercity bus operators. Both express and local bus service may be provided. The Greyhound and Trailways systems are national intercity bus networks. Jitney Service: Jitney vehicles travel along a fixed route with no time schedule; passengers are picked up anywhere along the route (flag stops). Because there are no schedules, headways are usu- ally 5 to 10 minutes so passengers have only brief waiting periods. Jitney service is often used in the United States to provide seasonal, tourist, or park and ride service. Jitney service is a more com- mon public transportation mode in other countries where private entrepreneurs are often the providers of service. Local Bus Service: Local bus service is a term used to describe a route along which many stops are made, allowing flexibility in where passengers may board and depart. It is typically used in con- trast to express bus, a bus that makes a limited number of stops and is targeted more at long dis- tance riders. Local bus service is important in rural areas unless feeder or connector service is available to bring people to the station. Mobility: The ability to move or to be moved from place to place. Mode: The means used to accomplish a trip, such as walking, traveling by automobile, traveling by bus, or traveling by train. No-Show: A passenger scheduled for a trip who does not appear at the designated pick-up point and time and does not cancel the trip in advance is considered to be a "no-show." Frequent no- shows can hurt the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation services, particularly in rural areas where passengers live in remote areas that take extensive time to get to and return from the pick- up point. One-Way Trip: A one-way journey or movement of a person or vehicle between a specific ori- gin and a specific destination. Origin: A place at which a passenger boards a vehicle; the point at which a trip begins. Often this term is used to refer to a passenger's home, even though the home actually becomes the destina- tion of a return trip. Paratransit Service: Paratransit is a broad term that may be used to describe any means of shared ride transportation other than fixed route mass transit services. The term paratransit usually indi- cates that smaller vehicles (less than 25 passengers) are being used. These services usually serve the needs of persons that standard mass transit services would serve with difficulty. A paratransit ser- vice is typically advanced reservation, demand-responsive service provided curb-to-curb or door- to-door. Route deviation and point deviation are also considered paratransit. Paratransit is often more appropriate than fixed route services in rural areas and in areas with large populations of eld- erly or persons with disabilities. Paratransit services that are provided to accommodate passengers with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route service and that meet specific service equivalency tests are called ADA complementary paratransit services.
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Glossary 47 Passenger Trip (Unlinked): Typically, one passenger trip is recorded any time a passenger boards a transportation vehicle or other conveyance used to provide transportation. "Unlinked" means that one trip is recorded each time a passenger boards a vehicle, no matter how many vehi- cles that passenger uses to travel from their origin to their destination. Peak/Off-Peak Periods: Peak periods are those time periods during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. These are also the periods during which the demand for transportation is usually highest. They may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or afternoon or evening (p.m.) peak, typically between 6:30 to 9:30 a.m. and 3:30 to 6:30 p.m. on weekdays when commuters are trav- eling to and from work and school. The actual times vary according to local employer shift times, school hours, and population density. Typically, during the peak period in urban transit systems, the maximum number of vehicles are placed in service, headways are shorter, and higher fares are charged than during the off-peak period. Performance Measurement: Performance measurement is periodic but regular monitoring and reporting of program accomplishments, particularly progress towards pre-established goals. Typical measures are inputs (resources applied to a problem), outputs (numeric measures of pro- gram products), and outcomes (what changed). Personal Care Attendant: A Personal Care Attendant (PCA) is a person who assists an individ- ual with a physical, sensory, or cognitive disability or other health care needs with the activities of daily living. A PCA is usually considered a personal mobility aide and is allowed to ride free. PCAs must have the same beginning and ending destination as the passenger. PCAs shall remain with the passenger during the complete trip and to/from the building. Person-Trip: A trip made by one person from one origin to one destination. Point Deviation Service: A type of flexible route transit service in which fixed scheduled stops (points) are established but the vehicle may follow any route needed to pick up individuals along the way if the vehicle can make it to the fixed points on schedule. This type of service usually pro- vides access to a broader geographic area than does fixed route service but is not as flexible in scheduling options as demand-responsive service. It is appropriate when riders change from day to day but the same few destinations are consistently in demand. Also sometimes called check- point service. Provider of Transportation (Transportation Provider): An agency that operates vehicles in transportation service (as opposed to an agency whose role is limited to funding programs). Pulse System: A type of fixed route transit system (usually involving a radial network) in which all routes arrive at and depart from the central transfer point at the same times. This tim- ing facilitates transferring but necessitates a transfer facility where simultaneously all buses can safely drop off passengers and wait, and passengers can easily and safely get to the bus to which they are transferring. Radial Network: A public transit route service pattern in which most routes converge into and diverge from a central transfer point or hub, like the spokes of a wheel. If the routes are timed to arrive and depart at the same time, it is called a pulse system. Real-Time Scheduling: Passengers call and request demand-responsive trips a short time before the trip is needed, and the dispatcher is responsible for assigning vehicles and drivers to meet pas- sengers' requests. This type of scheduling is most convenient for passengers but costly for a tran- sit system to implement as a large fleet of vehicles and drivers is needed to ensure all trip requests are met. This type of scheduling is most frequently used by taxi services. Reverse Commute: Commuting against the main directions of traffic. Often refers to travel from a central city to suburbs during peak period commuting times.
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48 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Rideshare/Ridematch Program: A rideshare/ridematch program facilitates the formation of carpools and vanpools, usually for work trips. A database is maintained of the ride times, origins, destinations, and driver/rider preferences of users and potential users. Persons requesting to join an existing pool or looking for riders are matched by program staff with other appropriate persons. In rural areas, a rideshare/ridematch program may be used to coordinate Medicaid or volunteer transportation. Ridesharing: Ridesharing is the simultaneous use of a vehicle by two or more persons. Road Call: A mechanical failure of a vehicle in revenue service that causes a delay to service, and which necessitates removing the vehicle from service until repairs are made. Repairs may be made on the road, at the location at which the mechanical failure occurred. Round Trip: A trip from an origin to a destination and then back to the original origin. A trip from a person's home to their place of work and then back to their home is considered one round trip (and also is considered to be two one-way trips). Route Deviation Service: Transit buses travel along a prescribed alignment or path with scheduled time points at each terminal point and perhaps also at key intermediate locations. Route deviation service is different than conventional fixed route bus service in that the vehicle may leave the route upon requests of passengers to be picked up or returned to destinations near to the route. Following an off-route deviation, the vehicle typically returns to the point at which it left the route. Passengers may call in advance for route deviation or may access the system at pre- determined route stops. The limited geographic area within which the vehicle may travel off the route is known as the route deviation corridor. Service Gaps: Service gaps can occur when certain geographic segments cannot be covered by transportation services. This term can also refer to instances where service delivery is not available to a certain group of riders, or at a specific time. Service Hours: [A] A measure of service that records those hours during the day when passen- gers can access the travel services of a transportation system. [B] The aggregate number of hours that all vehicles together provide in service to passengers. Service Route: Service routes are transit routes that are tailored to meet the needs of a specific market segment (such as the elderly or persons with disabilities) in a community. Service routes often evolve out of a pattern of demand-responsive travel within a community. Characteristics of a service route include stops at high-density residential complexes or group homes, shopping areas, medical facilities, and destinations specific to the target population such as senior centers or shel- tered work sites. Stops are usually positioned near an accessible entrance of a building instead of on the street, and the ride times are typically longer than on a "conventional" fixed route covering the same general area. Service routes may be operated instead of, or in conjunction with, a "con- ventional" route in the same area. Vehicles tend to be smaller and accessible to persons with dis- abilities, and drivers usually offer a relatively high level of personal assistance. Service routes are used widely in Europe and are gaining greater popularity in the United States since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Shared Ride Taxi: A shared ride taxi service provides taxi transportation in which more than one passenger is in the vehicle at the same time, possibly at a reduced rate for each of the passen- gers. Shared ride taxi service is a way of using taxicabs for paratransit service. Shuttle Service: Shuttle service refers to fixed route service that connects only a small number of fixed stops and operates at a high frequency (or short headways). The vehicle follows a repetitive back-and-forth route. This type of service is related to circulator service but connotes a more lin- ear route structure. A parking shuttle is an example of use that could apply to areas that have a sea- sonal tourist attraction.
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Glossary 49 Special Event Service: Buses are provided for special events in the community. Special bus runs may be arranged for trade shows, sports events, schools, tourist attractions, or shopping promo- tions. Longer-term service may be provided for seasonal needs at entertainment centers or fairs. Such service may be initiated by the sponsor of the event or the transit system as a marketing tool. Subscription Service: When a passenger or group of passengers requests a repetitive ride (such as on a daily or weekly service on an ongoing basis), trips are often scheduled on a subscription or "standing order" basis. The passenger makes a single initial trip request, and the transit system automatically schedules them for their trip(s) each day or week. Taxi: Demand-responsive transportation vehicle offered to individual members of the public on an exclusive basis, in a vehicle licensed to render that service, usually operated by a private for- profit company. Fares are usually charged on a per-mile or per-minute (or both) basis on top of a base fare charged for all trips. Passengers may call the dispatcher to request a trip (real-time sched- uling) or hail a passing unoccupied taxi. Total Hours: All hours when a vehicle is available for service, whether passengers are on-board or not. Service hours plus deadhead hours equals total hours. Total Miles: All miles when a vehicle is available for service, whether passengers are on-board or not. Service miles plus deadhead miles equals total miles. Transit: Generally refers to passenger service provided to the general public along established routes, with fixed or variable schedules, at published fares. Related terms include public transit, mass transit, public transportation, urban transit, and paratransit. Transit Dependent: Persons who must rely on public transit or paratransit services for most of their transportation. Typically refers to individuals without access to personal vehicles. Transportation Disadvantaged: A term used to describe those persons who have little or no access to meaningful jobs, services, and recreation because a transportation system does not meet their needs. Often refers to those individuals who cannot drive a private automobile because of age, disability, or lack of resources. Travel Time: Customarily calculated as the time it takes to travel from "door-to-door." Used in transportation planning. In forecasting the demand for transit service, measures of travel time include time spent accessing, waiting, and transferring between vehicles, as well as that time spent on board. Trip: A one-way journey or movement of a person or vehicle between a specific origin and a spe- cific destination. For purposes of recording transportation services, trips are considered to be one- way trips unless otherwise specified. Trips may require using one or more travel modes, including walking and travel using different kinds of vehicles. Trip Denial: A trip denial occurs when a trip is requested by a passenger but the transportation provider cannot provide the service. Trip denial may happen because capacity is not available at the particular requested time. For ADA paratransit, a capacity denial is specifically defined as occurring if a trip cannot be accommodated within the negotiated pick-up window. Even if a trip is provided, if it is scheduled outside the +60/-60 minute window, it is considered a denial. If the passenger refused to accept a trip offered within the +60/-60 minute pick-up window, it is consid- ered a refusal, not a capacity denial. Trip Generator: A place that generates a demand for frequent travel is called a trip generator. Trip generators may be origins or destinations. For example, a high-density residential area gen- erates a need for all kinds of trips outside of the residential area into commercial areas, a medical center generates trips for medical purposes, and a downtown area may generate trips for retail, recreational, or personal business purposes.
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50 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Unduplicated Persons Served: The number of individual persons who receive transportation services. A particular time period will be specified in relation to this number. Unlinked Passenger Trip: An unlinked passenger trip is a single boarding of any vehicle. A pas- senger is counted each time he or she boards a vehicle even if the boarding is part of a journey from origin to destination that includes boardings of other vehicles. The number of unlinked passenger trips for any transportation system is the number of passenger boardings of their vehicles. User-Side Subsidy: A transportation funding structure in which qualified users (often econom- ically disadvantaged persons) are able to purchase vouchers for transportation services at a por- tion of their worth. The users may then use the vouchers to purchase transportation from any participating provider; the vouchers are redeemed by the provider at full value and the provider is reimbursed by the funding agency for the full value. Vanpool: An organized ridesharing arrangement in which a number of people travel together on a regular basis in a van. The van may be company owned, individually owned, leased, or owned by a third party. Expenses are shared, and there is usually a regular volunteer driver. In terms of service design, a vanpool is basically a carpool that uses a vehicle larger than a car. In rural areas, vanpools can be an important form of employment transportation where densities are not high enough to justify commuter service. Vehicle Hours: The hours that a vehicle is operated, measured as when it is scheduled to or actu- ally travels from the time it pulls out from its garage to go into service to the time it pulls in and terminates operations. Vehicle Miles: The miles that a vehicle is scheduled to or actually travels, from the time it pulls out from its garage to go into service to the time it pulls in from service. Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT): A standard area-wide measure of travel activity. The most con- ventional VMT calculation is to multiply average trip length by the total number of trips. Volunteers: Volunteers are persons who offer services to others but do not accept monetary or material compensation for the services that they provide. In some volunteer programs, the volun- teers are reimbursed for their out-of-pocket expenses; for example, volunteers who drive their own cars may receive reimbursement based on miles driven for the expenses that they are assumed to have incurred, such as gasoline, repair, and insurance expenses. Zone: A defined geographic area. Zones are used in demand-responsive service for dispatching purposes and in fixed route and demand-responsive service for fare determination. In zonal demand-responsive service, each vehicle travels only within a particular zone. Trips that origi- nate in one zone and end in another involve a transfer at the zone boundary or a central trans- fer point. In a zonal fare structure, the service area is divided into zones and the fare is determined according to the number of zones traveled (the higher the number of zones, the higher the fare). This is a method of charging a distance-based fare. Zones can assume a number of dif- ferent forms depending on the route design, including concentric circles, key stops along a route, a grid system, or a hybrid of these. Accounting Concepts Allocation: An administrative distribution of funds or expenses. Federal programs often allo- cate funds among the states. Capital Costs: Refers to the costs of long-term assets of a public transit system such as prop- erty, buildings, and vehicles.
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Glossary 51 Capitated Payment: A payment arrangement on a per-member basis for a given number of rid- ers under a provider's services; a set amount of money received or paid out, based on a prepaid agreement rather than on actual cost of separate rides or services delivered. Providers are not reim- bursed for services that exceed the allotted amount. The rate may be fixed for all members or it can be adjusted based on the riders' characteristics. Expenditures (Outlays): A term signifying disbursement of funds for repayment of obligations incurred. For example, an electronic transfer of funds, or a check sent to a state highway or trans- portation agency for voucher payment, is an expenditure or outlay. Farebox Revenue: The money collected as payment for rides, which can be in the form of cash, tickets, tokens, transfers, or passes. Fare Structure: Fare structure is the basis for determining how fares are charged. Common types of structures are distance-based (the longer the trip is, the higher the fare will be), time-based (higher fares for trips made during peak hour service than during the off peak), quality-based (demand-responsive trips are typically charged a higher fare than fixed route trips), or flat fares (the same fare is charged for all trips). In addition to these four methods, a fare structure may dif- ferentiate among passengers based on age, income, or disability (often lower fares are charged for elderly persons, children, Medicaid recipients, and persons with disabilities). Financial Capacity, Capability: Refers to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirement that an adequate financial plan for funding and sustaining transportation improve- ments be in place prior to programming federally funded projects. Generally refers to the stability and reliability of revenue in meeting proposed costs. Fiscal Year (FY): Since FY 1977, the federal yearly accounting period begins October 1 and ends September 30 of the subsequent calendar year. Prior to FY 1977, the federal fiscal year started on July 1 and ended the following June 30. Fiscal years are denoted by the calendar year in which they end (e.g., FY 1991 began October 1, 1990, and ended September 30, 1991). States and localities may have fiscal years that are different from the federal OctoberSeptember time period. Operating Costs: Costs associated with operating and maintaining a transit system, including labor, fuel, administration, and maintenance. Recordkeeping: Recordkeeping refers to activities of monitoring and maintaining all types of materials related to service and business transactions. Agencies develop their own recordkeeping mechanism or their funders may require specific forms of recordkeeping. Often, computer soft- ware is used for recordkeeping and this information can be used for auditing or other quality con- trol measures. Uniform System of Accounts (USOA): A structure of accounting categories and definitions used for reporting to ensure uniform data. USOA transit-related object codes are used in this report. FTA's Uniform System of Accounts and Records consists of various categories of accounts and records for classifying financial and operating data; precise definitions as to what data elements are to be included in these categories; and definitions of practices for systematic collection and recording of such information. Federal Legislation and Programs Access Board: Common name for the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, an independent federal agency whose mission is to develop guidelines for accessible facil- ities and services and to provide technical assistance to help public and private entities understand and comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
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52 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Access to Jobs: Federal funding for programs to increase work-related transportation available to low-income individuals, authorized in TEA-21. Nonprofit organizations and municipalities can apply to FTA for funding. ADA: See Americans with Disabilities Act. ADA Complementary Paratransit Service: Demand-responsive service that is operated in addition to fixed route service to accommodate persons who cannot ride the fixed route service because their disability prevents it. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), public enti- ties that operate fixed route service (excluding commuter service) are required to provide com- plementary paratransit with service characteristics equivalent to the fixed route service. The ADA is very specific in what constitutes equivalent service and what kinds of persons must be provided this service. A plan describing the service, which documents the planning process, must be sub- mitted to the appropriate Federal Transit Administration regional office and updated annually. Administration on Aging (AoA): An agency in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that is the official federal agency dedicated to policy development, planning, and the delivery of supportive home- and community-based services to older persons and their caregivers. The AoA administers the Older Americans Act and works through the National Association of State Units on Aging, Area Agencies on Aging, Tribal and Native organizations representing 300 American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal organizations, and two organizations serving Native Hawaiians, plus thousands of service providers, adult care centers, caregivers, and volunteers. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): The joint federal-state welfare program until 1996 when welfare reform ended AFDC and created Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA): A federal law that requires public facilities, including transportation services, to be fully accessible for persons with disabilities. ADA also requires the provision of complementary or supplemental paratransit services in areas where fixed route transit service is operated. This Act expands the definition of eligibility for accessible services to persons with mental disabilities, temporary disabilities, and the conditions related to substance abuse. The Act is an augmentation to, but does not supersede, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability against otherwise qualified indi- viduals in programs receiving federal assistance. Apportionment: A term that refers to a statutorily prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on prescribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing authorized obligation authority for a specific program among the states. Appropriations Act: Action of a legislative body that makes funds available for expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration. In most cases, it permits money previ- ously authorized to be obligated and payments to be made. Area Agency on Aging (AAA): The local entity that plans senior services and advocates for the elderly within their communities, administering provisions of the Older Americans Act (OAA). Attainment Area: An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards used in the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others. Nonattainment areas are areas considered not to have met these standards for designated pollutants. Authorization Act: Basic substantive legislation or legislation that empowers an agency to implement a particular program and also establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds that can be appropriated for that program.
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Glossary 53 Block Grant: Categorical funds that are distributed to a recipient without specific spending requirements. Budget Authority: Empowerment by Congress that allows federal agencies to incur obligations to spend or lend money. This empowerment is generally in the form of appropriations. However, for the major highway program categories, it is in the form of contract authority. Budget author- ity permits agencies to obligate all or part of the funds that were previously authorized. Without budget authority, federal agencies cannot commit the government to make expenditures or loans. Circulars from FTA: The Federal Transit Administration publishes and updates Circulars to communicate funding program requirements. Contract Authority: A form of budget authority that permits obligations to be made in advance of appropriations. The Federal-Aid Highway Program operates mostly under contract authority rules. Congestion Management and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ): A categorical funding program created with the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Directs funding to projects that contribute to meeting national air quality standards. CMAQ funds generally may not be used for projects that result in the construction of new capacity available to single-occupant vehicles (SOVs). Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC): These areas, so designated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA), are eligible for preferences and flexibility in many federal grant programs. EZ/ECs are chosen competitively based on community poverty characteristics and local strategic plan- ning processes. Enhancement Activities: Refers to activities related to a particular transportation project that enhance or contribute to the existing or proposed project. Examples of such activities include pro- vision of facilities for pedestrians or cyclists, landscaping or other scenic beautification projects, historic preservation, control and removal of outdoor advertising, archeological planning and research, and mitigation of water pollution because of highway runoff. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A report that details any adverse economic, social, and environmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which federal funding is being sought. Adverse effects could include air, water, or noise pollution; destruction or disruption of natural resources; adverse employment effects; injurious displacement of people or businesses; or disruption of desirable community or regional growth. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): The agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation that administers federal-aid highway programs. Federal Transit Administration (FTA): The agency within the U.S. Department of Trans- portation (DOT) that administers federal-aid transit programs. Grant: The award of funds to an entity. Federal funds are typically awarded either as formula (or block) grants, in which a predetermined legislative process establishes the level of funding avail- able to an entity, or discretionary grants, in which the funding agency is free to determine how much (if any) funding an entity will be given based on the relative merits of the proposal. Private foundations also give grants based on similar criteria. Head Start: A program of comprehensive services for economically disadvantaged preschool- age children. Services, including transportation, are provided by local Head Start agencies and are funded by the Administration for Children and Families, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
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54 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Interagency Agreement: A legal document that outlines the responsibilities of two or more agencies, such as an interagency coordination agreement. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA): Legislative initiative by the U.S. Congress that restructured funding for transportation programs. ISTEA authorized increased levels of highway and transportation funding and an enlarged role for regional plan- ning commissions/Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in funding decisions. ISTEA also requires comprehensive regional long-range transportation plans extending to the year 2015 and places an increased emphasis on public participation and transportation alternatives. Limitation on Obligations: Any action or inaction by an officer or employee of the United States that limits the amount of federal assistance that may be obligated during a specified time period. A limitation on obligations does not affect the scheduled apportionment or allocation of funds; it just controls the rate at which these funds may be used. Long Range: In transportation planning, refers to a time span of more than 5 years. Management Systems: Six systems required under TEA-21 to improve identification of prob- lems and opportunities throughout the entire surface transportation network of the United States and to evaluate and prioritize alternative strategies, actions, and solutions. The six management systems include: Pavement Management System (PMS), Bridge Management System (BMS), Highway Safety Management System (HSMS), Congestion Management System (CMS), Public Transit Facilities and Equipment Management System (PTMS), and Intermodal Management System (IMS). Medicaid: Also known as Medical Assistance, this is a health care program for low-income and other medically needy persons. It is jointly funded by state and federal governments. The Medicaid program is administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, an agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Medicaid pays for transportation to non- emergency medical appointments only if the recipient has no other means of travel to medical services. Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO): The organizational entity designated by law with lead responsibility for developing transportation plans and programs for urbanized areas of 50,000 or more in population. MPOs are established by agreement of the governor and units of general- purpose local government that together represent 75 percent of the affected population of an urbanized area. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): Federal standards that set allowable con- centrations and exposure limits for various pollutants. National Highway Systems (NHS): A federal transportation program authorized by ISTEA that designates nationally significant interstate highways and roads for interstate travel, national defense, intermodal connections, and international commerce. Other eligible activities include bikeways and park-and-ride lots. The NHS is being developed as the first component of a larger, intermodal National Transportation System (NTS). National Transit Database Reports: Formerly known as Section 15 reports, these annual reports are based on financial and operating data and are required of almost all recipients of transporta- tion funds under FTA's urban transit program. National Transit Resource Center: A resource center housed at the Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA). It provides technical assistance, information, and support to the community transportation industry. Most services and materials are available at no charge. National Transportation System (NTS): ISTEA called for the development of a "National Intermodal Transportation System that is economically efficient and environmentally sound,
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Glossary 55 provides the foundation for the Nation to compete in the global economy, and will move peo- ple and goods in an energy efficient manner." The NTS is intended to allow for the development of transportation planning, program management, and investment strategies that will bring about a transportation system that will move people and goods more effectively and efficiently and thereby advance our economic, environmental, and social goals. Obligations: Commitments made by federal agencies to pay out money (as distinct from the actual payments, which are "outlays"). Generally, obligations are incurred after the enactment of budget authority. However, because budget authority in many highway programs is in the form of contract authority, obligations in these cases are permitted to be incurred immediately after apportionment or allocation. The obligations are for the federal share of the estimated full cost of each project at the time it is approved, regardless of when the actual payments are made or the expected time of project completion. Older Americans Act (OAA): Federal law first passed in 1965. The act established a network of services and programs for older people. This network provides supportive services, including trans- portation and nutrition services, and works with public and private agencies that serve the needs of older individuals. Persons with Disabilities: Those persons who have a physical or mental impairment that sub- stantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of such impairment, or are regarded as having such an impairment. Public Authority: A federal, state, county, town, or township, Native American tribe, munic- ipal, or other local government or instrumentality with authority to finance, build, operate, or maintain transportation facilities. Public Participation: The active and meaningful involvement of the public in the development of transportation plans and improvement programs. The ISTEA and subsequent regulations require that state departments of transportation and MPOs proactively seek the involvement of all interested parties, including those traditionally underserved by the current transportation system. Regionally Significant: A term that has been defined in federal transportation planning regula- tions (40 FR 93.101) as "a project . . . that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs . . . and would normally be included in the modeling of a metropolitan area's transportation network, including, at a minimum, all principal arterial highway and fixed guideway transit facil- ities that offer a significant alternative to regional highway travel." Rescission: A legislative action to cancel the obligation of unused budget authority previ- ously provided by Congress before the time when the authority would have otherwise lapsed. Rescission may be proposed by the Executive Branch but requires legislative action in order to take effect. Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act of 2005: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU): Legislation passed by Congress that, building on ISTEA, continued the process of restructuring funding for transportation programs. SAFETEA-LU contains provi- sions intended to improve and maintain the surface transportation infrastructure in the United States, including the interstate highway system, transit systems around the country, bicycling and pedestrian facilities, and freight rail operations. Total funding authorized in this surface transportation bill is $284.6 billion. Section 5307 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program that provides funding for public transportation services in urban areas with populations between 50,000 and 200,000. Section 5311 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program that provides funding for rural general public transportation services. Rural areas are defined as those areas with populations of 50,000 or less.
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56 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Section 5316 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program, entitled Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC), that provides funding for transportation services that provide job access and reverse commute trips. The JARC program was established to address the unique trans- portation challenges faced by welfare recipients and low-income persons seeking to obtain and maintain employment. Initially implemented as part of the TEA-21 legislation in 1998, important portions of the JARC program were modified by the SAFETEA-LU legislation in 2005. Section 5317 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program, known as the New Freedom program, that provides funding for services to persons with disabilities that are beyond the scope of services required by ADA. This is a relatively new program created by the SATETEA- LU legislation in 2005. Social Equity, Justice: The provision of affordable, efficient, and accessible transportation ser- vices to all people regardless of race, ethnicity, income, gender, or disability. A socially equitable transportation system provides all people with convenient access to meaningful jobs, services, and recreational opportunities. State Highway Department: The department, commission, or board of any state responsible for highway construction, maintenance, and management. State Implementation Plan (SIP): Required documents prepared by states and submitted to EPA for approval. SIPs identify state actions and programs to implement designated responsibili- ties under the Clean Air Act. Surface Transportation Program: A new categorical funding program created with the ISTEA. Funds may be used for a wide variety of purposes, including roadway construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation; roadway operational improvements; capital costs for transit projects; highway and transit safety improvements; bicycle and pedestrian facilities; scenic and historical transportation facilities; and preservation of abandoned transportation corridors. Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF): Created by the 1996 welfare reform law, TANF is a program of block grants to states to help them meet the needs of families with no income or resources. It replaces AFDC, JOBS, Emergency Assistance, and some other preceding federal wel- fare programs. Because of TANF-imposed time limits, states are trying to place recipients in jobs as quickly as possible, often using program funds to pay for transportation, childcare, and other issues for workforce participation. Title III: An important Title of the Older Americans Act that authorizes expenditures for nutri- tion and transportation programs that serve older persons. Title IV: An important Title of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that ensures that no person in the United States will be discriminated against on the basis of race, color, or national origin. The trans- portation planning regulations, issued in October 1993, require that metropolitan transportation planning processes be consistent with Title IV. Transportation Control Measures (TCMs): Local actions to adjust traffic patterns or reduce vehicle use to reduce air pollutant emissions. These may include high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, provision of bicycle facilities, and ridesharing and telecommuting. Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21): The 1998 Congressional legislation that reauthorized DOT's surface transportation programs is called the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). This legislation replaces the 1991 authorizations known as ISTEA but essentially continues the program changes initiated under ISTEA (increased levels of highway and transportation funding, an enlarged role for regional planning commissions/MPOs in fund- ing decisions, and requirements for comprehensive regional long-range transportation plans and for public participation and transportation alternatives).
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Glossary 57 Transportation Improvement Program (TIP): This is a document prepared by states and plan- ning commissions citing projects to be funded under federal transportation programs for a full- year period. Without TIP inclusion, a project is ineligible for federal funding. The Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is typically regarded as a short-range program. Transportation Management Area (TMA): Defined by TEA-21 as all urbanized areas over 200,000 in population. Within a TMA, all transportation plans and programs must be based on a continuing and comprehensive planning process carried out by the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) in cooperation with states and transit operators. The TMA boundary affects the responsibility for the selection of transportation projects that receive federal funds. Transportation Management Association (TMA): A voluntary association of public and pri- vate agencies and firms joined to cooperatively develop transportation-enhancing programs in a given area. TMAs are appropriate organizations to better manage transportation demand in con- gested suburban communities. Transportation System Management (TSM): The element of a Transportation Improvement Program that proposes noncapital-intensive steps toward the improvement of a transportation sys- tem, such as refinement of system and traffic management, the use of bus priority or reserved lanes, and parking strategies. It includes actions to reduce vehicle use, facilitate traffic flow, and improve internal transit management. Trust Funds: Accounts established by law to hold receipts that are collected by the federal government and earmarked for specific purposes and programs. These receipts are not avail- able for the general purposes of the federal government. The Highway Trust Fund comprises receipts from certain highway user taxes (e.g., excise taxes on motor fuel, rubber, and heavy vehicles) and is reserved for use for highway construction, mass transportation, and related purposes. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): The federal agency charged with oversight of federal agricultural programs. Among its many other functions, USDA is the federal government's pri- mary agency for rural economic and community development. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS): The federal department responsible for overseeing a wide variety of human services programs that protect the health of all citizens and providing essential human services. Specific programs include those administered through AoA, Head Start, Medicaid, and other agencies. U.S. Department of Labor (DOL): The federal department responsible for overseeing pro- grams that support and promote the welfare of the job seekers, wage earners, and retirees in the United States. DOL administers a variety of federal labor laws, including those that guarantee workers' rights to safe and healthful working conditions, a minimum hourly wage and over- time pay, unemployment insurance, and other income support. U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): The federal department responsible for overseeing a wide variety of federal funds and regulations for transportation facilities and programs. U.S. DOT includes FHWA and FTA. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A federal agency whose responsibilities include development and enforcement of national air quality standards and support of anti-pollution activ- ities by state and local governments. Urbanized Area (UZA): An area that contains a city of 50,000 or more population, plus incor- porated surrounding areas, and meets set size or density criteria. Workforce Development Boards: Formerly known as Private Industry Councils (PIC), Workforce Development Boards are concerned with training and developing workers to meet the
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58 Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation needs of local businesses. Workforce Development Boards are responsible for most local job train- ing programs and related welfare-to-work efforts. Sources Burkhardt, J.E., Hamby, B., and McGavock, A.T. TCRP Report 6, "User's Manual for Assessing Service Delivery Systems for Rural Passenger Transportation," Ecosometrics, Inc. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (1995). Clay County Rural Transit Dial-A-Ride Bus Service. http://www.co.clay.mn.us/depts/ccrt/DialRide.htm. Accessed July 27, 2009. Community Transportation Association of America. Public and Community Transportation Glossary. http://web1. ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/GlossaryOfTransportationTerms.pdf. Accessed May 2010. COMSIS Corporation. Guidebook for Planning Small Urban and Rural Transportation Programs, Volume 1, DOT- T-91-07, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (1990), pp. V.2-V.5. Conning Insurance Glossary. http://www.conning.com/research-detail.aspx?id=134&ekmensel=63fc93eb_55_ 68_btnlink. Accessed July 27, 2009. Dispatcher in Transportation Logistics and Warehousing Career Channel. http://www.diversityworking.com/ career/Transportation_Logistics_and_Warehousing/Dispatchers/Dispatcher.html. Accessed July 27, 2009. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. Statewide Transportation Planning and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Regulations. Final Rule. 72 FR 7224, 2007. Federal Highway Administration. A Summary of Transportation Programs and Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Federal Highway Administration. Financing Federal-Aid Highways. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Federal Transit Administration. National Transit Database Glossary, http://220.127.116.11/ntdprogram/Glossary. htm#B. Accessed May 2010. Gray, B.H. (Ed.). Urban Public Transportation Glossary. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (1989). Surface Transportation Policy Project and the Center for Neighborhood Technology. Transportation: Envi- ronmental Justice and Social Equity: Conference Proceedings. Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. (1995).