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APPENDIX G Planning Resources for the Road Pricing Concepts Conversion of Existing High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and Other Lanes to High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes Federal Government Resources and Research K.T. Analytics, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Final Report, Federal Highway Administration (August 2008). See for discussion of conversions of HOV lanes to priced HOT lanes in Section 2-1, including case studies on impacts, equity, environment, operations, outreach and marketing with project details in Appendix B, part 1.0. Evans, J. E., K. U. Bhatt and K. F. Turnbull, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 14: Road Value Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2003). See for discussion of impacts, analytic considerations, elasticities, case studies, and planning considerations. State and Local Government Resources See the following documents/reports for discussion of each HOT lane conversion program with detailed description of impacts, cost and revenue implications, outreach, and affected party reactions. Minneapolis (I-394) Website of Minneapolis MnPASS lanes: http://www.mnpass.org (As of July 28, 2010). San Diego (I-15) Website of San Diego I-15 FasTrak lanes: http://fastrak.sandag.org (As of July 28, 2010). Denver (I-25) Colorado Department of Transportation, I-25 HOV/Express Lanes: Monthly Progress Report. Colorado Department of Transportation, I-25 HOV/Tolled Express Lanes Website: http://www.coloradodot. info/travel/tolling/i-25-hov-express-lanes (As of July 28, 2010). Houston (Katy Freeway and US 290) Website of Houston Value Pricing Quick Ride program: http://houstonvaluepricing.tamu.edu/quickride/ (As of July 28, 2010). The Effect of Operational Changes on the US 290 HOV/HOT Lane--available at http://houstonvaluepricing. tamu.edu/reports/documents/us_290.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Academic and Other Resources Buckeye, K. R. and L. W. Munnich, Jr., "I-394 MnPASS High-Occupancy Toll Lanes: Planning and Operational Issues and Outcomes (Lessons Learned in Year 1)." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transporta- tion Research Board, No. 1996, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2007), pp. 4957. Buckeye, K. R. and L. W. Munnich, Jr., "Value Pricing Outreach and Education: Key Steps in Reaching High- Occupancy Toll Lane Consensus in Minnesota." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation 133

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134 Road Pricing: Public Perceptions and Program Development Research Board, No. 1864, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2004), pp. 1621. Supernak et al., I-15 Congestion Pricing Project, Monitoring and Evaluation Services, Task 13, Phase II Year Three Overall Report (September 24, 2001). Burris, M. W. and J. Appiah, "Examination of Houston's QuickRide Participants by Frequency of QuickRide Usage." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1864, Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2004), pp. 2230. Burris, M. W. and B. R. Stockton, "Hot Lanes in Houston--Six Years of Experience," Journal of Public Trans- portation, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2004). Variable Pricing on New or Rehabilitated Facilities Federal Government Resources and Research K.T. Analytics, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Final Report, Federal Highway Administration (August 2008). See for discussion of variable pricing on new expressways and networks, Sections 2-11 and 2-23, including case studies on impacts, equity, environment, operations, outreach, and marketing with project details in Appendix B. Evans, J. E., K. U. Bhatt and K. F. Turnbull, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 14: Road Value Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2003). See for discussion of impacts, analytic considerations, elasticities, case studies, and planning considerations. U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Technologies That Enable Congestion Pricing, A Primer (2009). See for dis- cussion of tolling technologies from manual to advanced, including relevant enforcement and operations technologies. See: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop08042/fhwahop08042.pdf U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Congestion Pricing, A Primer: Overview (2009). See for discussion of a range of pricing options, U.S. and overseas experience to date, nature of congestion, impacts and benefits of pric- ing, relevant supporting U.S. DOT programs and FAQs. See: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ fhwahop08039/fhwahop08039.pdf State and Local Government Resources See the following links for reports for specific express lane facilities and plans, both single facil- ity and network, including project descriptions, study reports, and public information pieces. San Francisco Bay Area Network Plan http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/hov/HOT_Phase_3_report/2_HOT_Lanes_Final_Report.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Also see public information: http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/hov/faq.htm (As of July 28, 2010). Seattle, WA--State Route 520 http://www.build520.org (As of July 28, 2010). Also see public involvement: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Partners/Build520/choices.htm and funding plan: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Partners/Build520/funding.htm (As of July 28, 2010). San Diego, CA--Interstate 15 http://fastrak.511sd.com/ (As of July 28, 2010). Orange County, CA--State Route 91 http://www.91expresslanes.com/ (As of July 28, 2010). Washington, D.C., National Capital Region--the Intercounty Connector, the Northern Virginia Capital Beltway HOT Lanes Project, and the I-95/395 http://www.mwcog.org/uploads/committee-documents/bl5fWV5X20080310120945.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Academic and Other Resources HOT Networks: A Plan for Congestion Relief and Better Transit (Reason Foundation), available at http://www. rppi.org/ps305.pdf (As of July 28, 2010)--provides an overview of rationales for priced lane networks, some experience to date, and planning considerations.

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Planning Resources for the Road Pricing Concepts 135 Variable Pricing on Existing Toll Facilities Federal Government Resources and Research K.T. Analytics, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, (August 2008). See for discussion of variable pricing on existing tollways Section 2-16, including case studies on impacts, equity, environment, operations, outreach and marketing with project details in Appendix B, part 3.0. Evans, J. E., K. U. Bhatt and K. F. Turnbull, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 14: Road Value Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington D.C. (2003). See for discussion of impacts, analytic considerations, elasticities, case studies, and planning considerations. U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Technologies That Enable Congestion Pricing, A Primer (2009). See for dis- cussion of tolling technologies from manual to advanced, including relevant enforcement and operations tech- nologies. See: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop08042/fhwahop08042.pdf U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Congestion Pricing, A Primer: Overview (2009). See for discussion of a range of pricing options, U.S. and overseas experience to date, nature of congestion, impacts and benefits of pricing, relevant supporting U.S. DOT programs and FAQs. See: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ fhwahop08039/fhwahop08039.pdf State and Local Government Resources See the following reports for discussion of each peak pricing program with detailed description of toll changes, impacts, cost and revenue implications, outreach, and affected party reactions. Wilbur Smith Associates, Summary Report: Pennsylvania Turnpike Value Pricing Study. Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission (March 2004). Evaluation Study of New Jersey Turnpike Authority's Time of Day Pricing Initiative, Final Report, FHWA/NJ-2005- 012 (May 31, 2005). Wilbur Smith Associates, Illinois Tollway Value Pricing Pilot Study, Final Report (January 2007). CRSPE, Inc. and Cella Assoc., Expansion of Variable Pricing to Heavy Vehicles, Final Report, Lee County, Florida Department of Transportation (February 2005). Academic and Other Resources Muriello, M. F. and D. Jiji, "The Value Pricing Toll Program at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey: Revenue for Transportation Investment and Incentives for Traffic Management." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1864, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2004), pp. 915. Areawide Pricing Federal Government Resources and Research K.T. Analytics, Inc., Lessons Learned from International Experience in Congestion Pricing, Final Report, Federal Highway Administration (August 2008). See for detailed discussion of congestion pricing in Singapore, London, and Stockholm, including travel impacts and issues related to revenues, operations, equity, envi- ronment, outreach, and acceptability. Evans, J. E., K. U. Bhatt and K. F. Turnbull, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 14: Road Value Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2003). See for discussion of impacts, analytic considerations, elasticities, case studies, and planning considerations. State and Local Government Resources See the following reports for discussion of each areawide pricing program with descriptions of features, impacts, cost and revenue implications, outreach, and affected party reactions. Singapore Land Transport Authority (2008), description of Electronic Road Pricing and other details, available on http://www.lta.gov.sg/motoring_matters/index_motoring_erp.htm (As of July 28, 2010)

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136 Road Pricing: Public Perceptions and Program Development London Website of Transport for London (TfL) annual impact monitoring publications, reports, and outreach materi- als: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6722.aspx#2 (As of July 28, 2010). Quddus et al., The Impact of the Congestion Charge on Retail: the London Experience, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College, London, U.K. (2006) "Central London Congestion Charging Impact Monitoring," Transport for London, Sixth Annual Report, Lon- don, U.K. (July 2008) Available at: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/sixth-annual-impacts-monitoring- report-2008-07.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). "Western Extension: Londoners have spoken and the Mayor has listened," Transport for London press release. Available at: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/static/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/10590.html (As of October 22, 2010). "Demand Elasticities for Car Trips to Central London as revealed by the Central London Congestion Charge." Transport for London, London, U.K. (September 2008). Stockholm Website of Congestion Charge Secretariat, Stockholm, Sweden: http://www.stockholmsforsoket.se/templates/ page.aspx?id=183 (As of July 28, 2010). New York NYCDOT, Report to the Traffic Congestion Mitigation Commission and the Recommended Implementation Plan (January 2008). City of New York, Mayor's Office, New York City Mobility Needs Assessment: 20072030, part of PlaNYC. Regional Plan Association, An Evaluation of Alternatives to the New York City Congestion Pricing Plan (2007). Academic and Other Resources University of Leeds, Coordination of Urban Road User Charging and Organizational Issues, State of the Art Report, Work Package II, Version 4.0, U.K. (2008). Prud'homme R. and J. P. Bocajero, "The London Congestion Charge: A Tentative Economic Appraisal." Trans- port Policy 12 (3), (2005) pp. 279287. Callaway, Ewen, "Frank Kelly: London Congestion Charges Did Not Improve Air Quality," New Scientist.com News Service (30 April 2008) http://technology.newscientist.com/channel/tech/motoring-tech/dn13809- londoncongestion-charge-did-not-improve-air-quality.html (As of July 28, 2010). Mackie, P., "The London Congestion Charge: A Tentative Economic Appraisal. A Comment on the Paper by Prud'homme and Bocajero." Transport Policy, 12 (3), (2005) pp. 288290. Mahendra, Anjali, The Impacts of Road Pricing on Businesses: An Institutional Analysis Across Economic Sectors, Delft University Press, The Netherlands (2010). Wikipedia (2008), London Congestion Charge, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_congestion_charge (As of July 28, 2010). Armenius, H. and L. Hultkrantz, "The Politico-Economic Link Between Public Transport and Road Pricing: An ex-ante study of the Stockholm road-pricing trial." Transport Policy, 13 (2), (2006) pp. 162172. Olszewski P. and L. Xie, "Modeling the effects of road pricing on traffic in Singapore." Transportation Research, 39A (7/9), (2003) pp. 755772. Mileage or VMT Fees Federal Government Resources and Research K.T. Analytics, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, (August 2008). See for discussion of variable driver costs, pages 2-26 to 2-30, including case studies on impacts, equity, environment, operations, outreach, and marketing with project details in Appendix B (Section 5). Evans, J. E., K. U. Bhatt and K. F. Turnbull, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 14: Road Value Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2003). See for discussion of impacts, analytic considerations, elasticities, case studies, and planning considerations. Sorensen, P., Implementable Strategies for Shifting to Direct Usage-Based Charges for Transportation Funding, Draft Final Report for AASHTO, RAND Corporation (June 2009). Provides an overview of technologies, institu- tional issues at state and federal level, and evaluation of various VMT-fee options, recommendations for most promising options, and strategies and steps to prepare for implementation by 2015.

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Planning Resources for the Road Pricing Concepts 137 Whitty, J. M. and J. R. Svadlenak, Discerning the Pathway to Implementation of a National Mileage-Based Charg- ing System, Draft Report to TRB Executive Committee (March 2009). See for discussion of how a distance- based fee system might be instituted stepwise from the state to national level. State and Local Government Resources See the following links for details about specific trial programs and impacts, including project descriptions, study reports, and public information pieces. GA 400 Variable Pricing Institutional Study in Atlanta Commute Atlanta Study website, available at http://commuteatlanta.ce.gatech.edu/ (As of July 28, 2010). Mileage-Based User Fee Demonstration Project/PAYD Pilot in Minnesota Cambridge Systematics, Inc. et al., Mileage-Based User Fee Demonstration Project: Pay-As-You-Drive Experimen- tal Findings, Final Report MN/RC--2006-39A, Minnesota Department of Transportation (March 2006). http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200639A.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Cambridge Systematics, Inc. et al., Mileage-Based User Fee Demonstration Project: Potential Public Policy Impli- cations of Pay-As-You-Drive Leasing and Insurance Products, Final Report MN/RC--2006-39C, Minnesota Department of Transportation (March 2006). http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200639C.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Mileage-Based Road User Fee Evaluation in Oregon Oregon's Mileage Fee Concept and Road User Fee Pilot Program: Final Report. Oregon Department of Transporta- tion, Office of Innovative Partnerships and Alternative Funding (November 2007) http://www.oregon.gov/ ODOT/HWY/RUFPP/docs/RUFPP_finalreport.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Global Positioning System (GPS)-Based Pricing in the Puget Sound Region, Washington Puget Sound Regional Council, Traffic Choices Study, details available at http://www.psrc.org/transportation/ traffic (As of July 28, 2010). Puget Sound Regional Council, Traffic Choices Study: Summary Report, April 2008. http://www.psrc.org/assets/ 37/summaryreport.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Academic and Other Resources Zhang, Lei, B. Starr McMullen, Divya Valluri and Kyle Nakahara, "The Short- and Long-Run Impact of a Vehi- cle Mileage Fee on Income and Spatial Equity," paper presented at TRB 88th Annual Meeting, 2009. See for analysis showing spatial equity may be more an issue than income equity for a VMT fee system. National Evaluation of a Mileage-Based Road User Charge, ongoing study by the University of Iowa; details avail- able on http://www.roaduserstudy.org Distance-Based Tolling for Trucks in Europe Kossak, Andreas, "Germany's Truck Tolling: Road Pricing for High Performance Transportation" presentation at Urban Partnerships Workshop, Washington, D.C. (January 25, 2007). McKinnon, Alan C., "A Review of European Truck Tolling Schemes and Assessment of Their Possible Impact on Logistics Systems." International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 9:3, pp. 191205. Parking Pricing Federal Government Resources and Research Vaca, E. J. and R. Kuzmyak, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 13: Pricing and Fees. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2005). See for state of the art and exhaustive discussion of parking pricing strategies as to elasticities, effects by market segment, case study findings, and analytic considerations. K.T. Analytics, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, (August 2008). See for discussion of cash-out pilot program with implementation and marketing cautions from Seat- tle case study, page 2-30 and Appendix B.

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138 Road Pricing: Public Perceptions and Program Development State and Local Government Resources San Francisco Overview: http://www.sfmta.com/cms/psfpark/sfparkhist.htm (As of July 28, 2010). http://www.sfmta.com/cms/psfpark/sfparkindx.htm (As of July 28, 2010). How pricing works: http://www.sfmta.com/cms/psfpark/sfparkprcng.htm (As of July 28, 2010). Results of an on-street parking pricing program with "progressive rates" run by Port of SF: San Francisco On-Street Parking Management and Pricing Study, Final Report--Draft, San Francisco County Transportation Authority (June 2009) available at: http://www.sfcta.org/images/stories/Executive/Meetings/cac/2009/06jun/ On-StreetParkingStudyAttachment_All-withAppendices.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Relative effectiveness and applicability of parking pricing versus congestion pricing for addressing specific con- gestion and traffic problems: http://www.sfcta.org/images/stories/Executive/Meetings/cac/2009/06jun/ On-StreetParkingStudyFinalReportMemo_Final.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). New York Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Congestion Mitigation Commission Technical Analysis--Increased Cost of Parking in the Manhattan Central Business District (CBD): Technical Memorandum, New York City Economic Devel- opment Corporation and New York City Department of Transportation (December 2007); available at: https://www.nysdot.gov/programs/repository/Tech%20Memo%20on_Parking.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Free parking, congested streets: http://transalt.org/files/newsroom/reports/freeparking_traffictrouble.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Sustainable Streets plan (strategic plan): http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/stratplan.shtml (As of July 28, 2010). Park Smart website: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/motorist/parksmart.shtml (As of July 28, 2010). Austin City of Austin Neighborhood Parking Benefit District Pilot program (2009) with revenues from on-street park- ing meters returned to neighborhood improvements: https://www.ci.austin.tx.us/parkingdistrict/default.htm (As of July 28, 2010). Seattle, Washington--Parking Cash Out Demonstration The Downtown Seattle Access Project Parking Cash Out Experience: Results and Recommendations, King County Metro, Seattle, Washington (July 2003). Report available at: http://knowledge.fhwa.dot.gov/cops/hcx.nsf/ All+Documents/A19C77018189D09F85256DBA0063D8F4/$FILE/ParkingCashOutFinalJuly03.pdf (As of July 28, 2010). Academic and Other Resources Shoup, Donald, Parking Cash Out, American Planning Association, Report Number 532 (March 2005). Includes discussion of the concept, rationale, California cash out law, tax implications, eight case studies of impacts, implementation and distribution effect considerations. Schaller Consulting, "Free Parking, Congested Streets: The Skewed Economic Incentives to Drive in Manhattan," Transportation Alternatives (March 1, 2007). Shows the type of data gathering and analysis needed to deter- mine potential of parking pricing strategies on and off street; reportedly an important foundation document allowing City of New York to go forward with parking pricing innovations. Litman, Todd, Parking Management Strategies, Evaluation and Planning, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (April 3, 2006). See for comprehensive overview of all parking pricing strategies including impacts and implementation considerations Bianco, M. J., Effective Transportation Demand Management: The Results of Combining Parking Pricing, Transit Incentives--Portland, Oregon. Portland, Oregon: Portland State University (2000). See for example of effec- tive parking pricing aimed at downtown commuters.