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SECTION 3 Summary of Literature Review on Planning for Road Pricing Certain literature on local, regional, and state transportation planning processes is helpful to devising recommendations for treating road pricing in the formal planning process as undertaken by regional and state agencies in line with federal law and regulation. The background information reviewed in this section on transportation planning carried on by metropolitan planning organi- zations (MPOs), congestion management agencies, and state departments of transportation (DOTs) offer consistent and pertinent findings for how the formal planning process proceeds and how planning for road pricing can and should fit with the process. Appendix A provides detailed findings and references from the literature on planning. Overall findings from background information pertaining to planning for road pricing are as follows. 3.1 Domestic Scan of Congestion Pricing and Managed Lanes A recent survey by DKS Associates of selected MPOs and state DOTs in 10 metropolitan areas examined how they are planning for congestion pricing and managed lanes (DKS Associates, Feb- ruary 2009). Important findings include the following: The study found congestion pricing in eight metropolitan areas "started with individual proj- ects," versus deriving from within regional plans. As interest has moved from individual projects to regional approaches, "integration into the metropolitan planning process has also increased." Policy specifying the use of road pricing revenues has evolved in metropolitan transportation plans (MTPs), most often to cover cost of implementation and maintenance, often with excess revenues going to fund transit improvements. However, given the size and extent of typical high-occupancy toll (HOT) lane pricing projects, revenues have not been sufficiently large yet to be significant in meeting MTP financial constraint. All HOT land projects reviewed involved assessing air quality impacts and mitigation to meet National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and/or California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) requirements. Analysis of congestion pricing among the metropolitan areas surveyed relied on the regional travel model for analysis, often supplemented by other tools with added sensitivity to pricing and/or for analysis of costs and benefits. 59