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SECTION 4 Interview Findings The interview guide (included in Appendix C) explored several points pertaining to how road pricing is treated in local, regional, and state planning and the process of engaging the public, stakeholders, and decision makers and fashioning communications on road pricing. Interview summaries were compiled on these points and all others in the guide. From the summaries, responses on each specific planning point were synthesized and compiled in Appendices E and F. Provided here are findings derived from a cross-cutting examination of the tables. From the find- ings, conclusions and implications are derived regarding the treatment of RP in the planning process. 4.1 Road Pricing Emergence Factors This section discusses the factors that caused road pricing to emerge as a policy option and to be included in the planning process in the studied regions, even if it did not lead to final imple- mentation as a project. The factors discussed below were found to be responsible for emergence of RP at multiple locations. Prior experience: Familiarity with proven examples or prior local experience aids in explaining and bringing forth RP concepts and plans. In the San Francisco Bay Area, acceptable project pro- posals for HOT lanes to be implemented in the near term in Santa Clara paved the way for a regional HOT network plan. Pricing has been part of the philosophy at the Metropolitan Planning Commission for two decades and this familiarity with the policy has been vital. In D.C., studies had been done dating back to the 1970s with legal scrutiny of RP plans over two decades before adop- tion of a vision plan supporting RP and final implementation of the first project. Regions having experience with prior failed attempts at RP have also seen successful re-emergence of the concept. In the Los Angeles area, prior failed experience with designing RP programs began debate and awareness about it among public and decision makers. In the Twin Cities region of Minneapolis St. Paul, pricing was first proposed in 1997 without political support, but increasing familiarity with the concept over a decade helped in implementation of the I-394 MnPass HOT lanes. Constraints of traditional funding: RP emergence is aided by its potential to generate capac- ity sooner than traditional state and local funding cycles. For instance, a key motivator for the regional HOT lane network in San Francisco is that new capacity could be created 30 to 40 years sooner. Expected shortfalls in transportation revenues under traditional funding sources also aid emergence. This was the case in Dallas where indications of potential shortfalls in gas tax revenues were seen in the early 1990s, the Washington D.C. metropolitan region, New York City where the transit system required new sources of funding, and the Seattle region where the gas tax has already been raised multiple times, leaving pricing as the only option to raise addi- tional funds. 64

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Interview Findings 65 Federal funding: Funding support for RP available through focused federal initiatives like the Value Pricing Pilot Program (VPPP), Congestion Reduction Demonstration Initiative (CRDI), or Urban Partnerships Agreements (UPA) aids emergence. This aid was seen in Los Angeles, which successfully applied for the CRDI after failed attempts at a UPA grant; Minneapolis St. Paul, Seattle, and New York City's areawide pricing program where emergence was sparked by applications to the UPA grant; and Portland, D.C., and New York City's parking pricing pilot that were funded by the FHWA VPPP. In some cases, funding from publicprivate partnerships also aids emergence, seen typically in the case of HOT lanes with examples in Dallas and the D.C. area. Quality and strength of technical analysis: Sound and compelling technical analysis on RP impacts can aid emergence; weak or unconvincing analysis can retard emergence. Whether done within the formal regional planning processes or at project level, the character of analy- sis on relieving congestion, improving operations, providing revenues, or increasing economic productivity is important to emergence, as seen in San Francisco, D.C., and the Twin Cities region. Legislative and policy support: Adoption of policy framework or specific legislation can be an impetus to RP emergence, and pivots off of revenue needs, environmental goals, or congestion. For instance, in the early nineties, the MPO for the Dallas region adopted a policy framework stipulating that all facilities on new right-of-way and existing freeways that were being recon- structed should be tested for toll road feasibility and built as such, if warranted, because of the limited availability of funding to meet the region's capacity needs. In Portland too, House Bill 2120 was passed, directing the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to develop pilot programs for congestion pricing and to test alternatives to the fuel tax; House Bill 2001A was passed in 2009 that allowed the Oregon Department of Transportation to make the mileage-fee based road pricing program permanent and implement a congestion pricing pilot program within 3 years. Similar legislation was passed in Los Angeles in 2006 allowing implementation of HOT lane projects. Presence of responsible planning entity and local tolling authority: RP emergence is often accompanied by creation of a specific commission or task force at the state or local level charged with planning to relieve traffic congestion and to vet options. In New York, the governor created a Traffic Congestion Mitigation Commission in 2007, the same year a Congestion Pricing Commit- tee was created in Los Angeles. RP emergence is also eased when additional state authority is not needed for pricing due to the presence of a local toll authority as in Dallas or a state-authorized commission as in Seattle. In Seattle, a commission with authority to charge tolls for revenue and traffic management purposes was set up through legislative action. Pricing proposed on new facilities: RP emergence is facilitated when planned on new facilities or lanes rather than existing ones, as public and stakeholder acceptability is enhanced. This was seen in the case of new HOT lane projects constructed in Dallas and the Intercounty Connector in Maryland. Traffic conditions: The nature and severity of traffic conditions is important to emergence, whether severe, persistent congestion as recognized in Los Angeles, the D.C. metropolitan region, and New York City or the underutilization of HOV lanes as was the case in the Twin Cities region. Influence of key actors: Engagement, support, and persuasiveness of influential actors and stakeholders--such as a federal administrator, governor, senator, or other champion and the positions and actions of business, environmental, and equity interest groups--is important to RP emergence. The influence of such actors had an important bearing on the course of road pricing developments in Los Angeles, Portland, New York, and other cities.