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66 Road Pricing: Public Perceptions and Program Development 4.2 Relationship of RP with Regional Transportation Planning Requirements Moving onward from the factors that aid emergence of road pricing, the focus of this section is on the relationship of pricing with the regional transportation plan. RP may either be part of the regional transportation plan or find a place in other plans such as statewide or corridor plans. The planning requirements that help or hinder implementation of RP are discussed below. Treatment in regional plan: Where RP is included in adopted long-range transportation plans, it enters by varying rationales and supports, sometimes by planning integral to the regional plan-- as in Dallas, San Francisco, MinneapolisSt. Paul, and Seattle--and sometimes by amendments and updates based on ongoing projects--as in Los Angeles and the D.C. metropolitan area. Once road pricing is included within the regional plan, RP strategies aim at reduced congestion, delays, and emissions and improved highway performance. Additionally, they sometimes aim to bring forth transportation improvements more quickly than with traditional finance sources. Also, inclusion of RP even in general terms during a prior planning cycle can facilitate inclusion in future plans. Federal requirement of fiscal constraint: RP in regional plans plays a supportive role in meeting the regional plan requirements of fiscal constraint as revenue generation can be an important objective. The fiscal constraint requirement was cited as a key impetus to the implementation of road pricing in Dallas, Minneapolis, and Los Angeles. Technical analysis and environmental review: Analysis of RP in determining preferred scenar- ios for long-range plans often involves the application of detailed regional models, sometimes requiring modification. In Dallas, detailed analysis showing performance measures about the real costs of the transportation system and how much people are underpaying was an important part of public communication, while in Seattle, sophisticated toll optimization and integrated land usetransportation models were used along with benefitcost analysis with updated values of time. Analysis also included assessment of environmental and equity impacts as part of full envi- ronmental reviews for projects nearing implementation. Such impacts were analyzed in Dallas, Los Angeles, and New York City. Treatment of RP outside regional planning process: In some cases, RP may have an "after-the- fact" relationship with the long-range transportation plan or other state planning processes, as when developed under federal grant programs as was the case in New York City, Portland, the D.C. area, and the Twin Cities. In other cases, such as San Francisco and the I-270 corridor in Mary- land, RP is being developed via corridor studies. However, once funding is assured and develop- ment is forthcoming, projects are formally included in applicable state and regional transportation plans as seen in the case of projects in the D.C. area. RP is sometimes also included in plans outside of regional transportation plans, e.g., the 2009 Revised Transportation Policy Plan for Minneapolis that forecasts the needs and capabilities of the highway system 50 years on and the Moving Washington (Seattle) 10-year state plan that supports funding projects using non-traditional sources. 4.3 Relationship of RP with Specific Planning Actions and Required Planning Processes This section discusses how required planning processes support or hinder planning for RP. Processes include air quality conformity, congestion management, environmental review, integra- tion with specific plans (such as for greenhouse gas reduction), and parking management.