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REPORT S2-S05-RR-1 Design of the In-Vehicle Driving Behavior and Crash Risk Study Accelerating solutions for highway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasFort Worth International Airport, Texas Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010) Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, Virginia Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California *Membership as of March 2011.

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The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-S05-RR-1 Design of the In-Vehicle Driving Behavior and Crash Risk Study In Support of the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study JON ANTIN, SUZIE LEE, JON HANKEY, AND TOM DINGUS Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Blacksburg, Virginia TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Subscriber Categories Highways Safety and Human Factors

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The Second Strategic Highway SHRP 2 Report S2-S05-RR-1 Research Program ISBN: 978-0-309-12895-7 America's highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the na- tion. Developments in research and technology--such as ad- 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. vanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science--offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this im- Copyright Information portant national resource. Breakthrough resolution of significant Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for ob- transportation problems, however, requires concentrated re- taining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright sources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of research and tech- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to nology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission- imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, oriented, discipline-based research programs that have been the or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment mainstay of the highway research industry for half a century. of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the ma- terial, request permission from SHRP 2. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, and publication format. Report numbers ending in "w" are published as web documents only. Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the Notice first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid design by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions and the National Research Council. produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion through The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation; and the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environmental, and sponsors. community needs in the planning and designing of new trans- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National portation capacity. Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- the report. countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memorandum of understanding among the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of re- SHRP 2 Reports search contractors; independent research project oversight; and Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: dissemination of research results. www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation, Publications, and Communications Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Robert Raab, International Coordinator Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Chrystyne Talley, Financial Associate Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Hans van Saan, Visiting Professional Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) in cooperation with the Amer- ican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). It was conducted in the sec- ond Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Offi- cer for SHRP 2 Safety. The research reported in this document was performed under SHRP 2 Safety Project S05, Design of the In-Vehicle Driving Behavior and Crash Risk Study, by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) at Virginia Tech. VTTI was the primary contractor for this study and was supported by subcontracts through the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) and Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle). Dr. Jon Antin is the Leader of the Light Vehicle Safety Group and driver testing specialist at VTTI. The other authors of this report are Dr. Suzanne (Suzie) Lee, Research Scientist and human subject specialist at VTTI; Dr. Jonathan M. Hankey, Director of the Center for Automotive Safety Research at VTTI, and Associate Principal Investigator for this study; and Dr. Thomas Dingus, Director of VTTI and the Princi- pal Investigator for this study. Contributions were provided throughout the course of the S05 study design project from a variety of authors at VTTI, UMTRI, and Battelle.

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F O R E W O R D Kenneth L. Campbell, PhD, SHRP 2 Chief Program Officer, Safety This report describes the study design for the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS). Using a sophisticated recording package installed in vehicles, it will collect information on the day-to-day driving of about 3,100 volunteer drivers for up to 2 years. Participants will be recruited in six sites throughout the United States. In this report, potential users of the SHRP 2 NDS data or its findings will find information about the participant recruitment plan, informed consent and data protection procedures, driver assessment tests, the capa- bilities of the data acquisition system (DAS), quality control, and project management. The objective of the SHRP 2 NDS is to reduce traffic injuries and fatalities by finding ways to prevent collisions and reduce their severity. Every 1% reduction in crashes will prevent 330 deaths and about $2 billion annually in medical expenses and other losses from these crashes. Moreover, crashes are a leading cause of nonrecurring congestion. Collision pre- vention has added benefits in terms of reduced delay, fuel consumption, and emissions. The focus of the NDS is to provide objective information on the role of driver behavior and per- formance in traffic collisions and the interrelationship of the driver with vehicle, roadway, and environmental factors. Planning activities began with an enumeration of high-priority safety research questions. More than 400 candidate research questions were obtained from various committee and other outreach activities. The high-priority safety topics identified include road departure and intersection collisions. Data requirements to address the research questions drove the specification of the DAS capabilities. The final DAS, designed to maximize the utility of the data within budget and technical constraints, records continuously whenever the vehicle is running. Participants will be recruited through a national call center and traditional solicitation activities, including print media, message boards, and posters at each NDS site. Six site con- tractors have been selected to obtain the consent of participants and install the DAS. Data recorded by the DAS will be retrieved every 4 to 6 months and uploaded to the NDS data storage facility at Virginia Tech. Roadway characteristics are also being measured in the NDS sites. GPS locations recorded by the DAS will be used to link roadway data with the infor- mation collected on the vehicle. In subsequent projects, analysts will access the data to address the high-priority safety questions.

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C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 4 C H A P T E R 1 Introduction 7 C H A P T E R 2 Study Design 7 Specific Research Questions 8 Sample Design Plan 10 Data Collection Sites 11 Participant Management 13 C H A P T E R 3 Data to Be Collected 13 Driver Demographics and Vehicle Inventory 13 Driver Assessment 15 Data Acquisition System Variables 17 Machine Vision Applications 19 Crash Investigation 21 C H A P T E R 4 Quality Processes 21 Quality Goals and Objectives 21 Quality Activities: DAS Installation and Deinstallation Process 21 Health Check 21 Training 25 C H A P T E R 5 Data Management 25 Human Subjects Protection 25 Institutional Review Boards and Certificate of Confidentiality 26 Collection Process from Vehicle to Server 27 Data Processing 27 Expected Data Magnitude 28 C H A P T E R 6 Data Provisioning 28 Data Dictionaries 28 Role-Based Access 28 Required Software 28 Coordination and Linking with Roadway Information 31 CHAPTER 7 Conclusions 32 References