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Executive Summary This final report provides a summary of the key aspects of the planning effort supporting the sec- ond Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), which focuses on Safety Project S06 (Technical Coordination and Independent Quality Assurance for Field Study) and Safety Project S07 (In-Vehicle Driving Behavior Field Study). The integration of these projects with Safety Project S04A (Roadway Information Database Development and Technical Coordination and Quality Assurance of the Mobile Data Collection Project) and Safety Project S04B (Mobile Data Collection) is also discussed. The objective of the SHRP 2 Safety Project S05: Design of the In-Vehicle Driving Behavior and Crash Risk Study (Study Design) was to design the SHRP 2 NDS, which will collect data--on the order of 1 petabyte (1,000 terabytes)--on "naturalistic," or real-world, driving behavior over a 2-year period beginning in fall 2010. During the SHRP 2 NDS, contracts will be awarded for data collection at six sites chosen from among 11 prequalified sites. These sites were selected in an attempt to provide as nationally diverse a source of data as possible, with a fairly wide range of geography, weather, state laws, road types, and road usage. The field study data collection contractors (S07) at each site will be responsible for implementing the plan devised in the planning project for each of the following: installing and uninstalling the data acquisition system (DAS) units; participant assessment; data collection; addressing participant management problems encountered during the study; inves- tigating crashes and data transmission; carrying out quality control procedures; and preparing periodic reports documenting the field study activities. The S06 contractor--the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI)--will serve in the oversight and integration role for all activi- ties that will be conducted under procedures defined by the study design (S05) contractor. Participant recruitment and screening for all sites will be conducted by a single national call center. The study design seeks to control the distribution of drivers in the study by age and gen- der according to the experimental design. To provide a more representative group of partici- pants, the call center will first seek to recruit individuals who have been randomly selected from listed samples of households and cell phones located in the vicinity of the study sites. As recruit- ment activities progress, they may have to be targeted towards age/gender cells that prove more difficult to fill. Finally, traditional recruitment activities (such as advertisements and flyers using prepared recruitment materials provided by VTTI) may also be conducted by the S07 site con- tractors, as needed. Individuals who volunteer to participate will be compensated as follows: The data collec- tion system will be installed in their personal vehicle for either 1 or 2 years. Compensation for 1 year of study participation will total a maximum of $300. For 2-year participants, the com- pensation will total a maximum of $600. If a participant withdraws from the study for any rea- son prior to the scheduled end date, compensation will be prorated at a rate of $25 per month of study participation. 1
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2 In addition to the primary volunteers, it is expected that family members or others may also regularly drive study vehicles. Such individuals are considered secondary drivers. These second- ary drivers will also be asked to provide informed consent so that data collected while they are driving may be analyzed as appropriate. No additional compensation will be provided to or for any secondary driver. Individuals who drive the vehicle less frequently or who remain unconsented for whatever rea- son will not be a part of the study, and any personally identifiable data collected (such as facial images and Global Positioning System [GPS] coordinates) while such individuals are driving will not be used. All human subject protocols are subject to review by the appropriate institutional review boards (IRBs). The SHRP 2 NDS will track approximately 1,950 DAS units on vehicles for 2 years, for a total of 3,900 data years. The DAS is designed to be easily mounted on a wide range of vehicles, includ- ing passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and pickup trucks, but not all makes and models in these categories will be eligible for inclusion in the study. Some DAS units will be installed and maintained for 2 full years while others will be removed at the end of the 1st year, after which new participants will be recruited for the 2nd study year. Recruiting new drivers after the 1st year increases the number of primary drivers in the study to 3,102. The DAS comprises several key components. The head unit assembly, mounted to the right of a participant's rearview mirror, will feature three video cameras to capture moving images of the driver's face, the forward roadway, and a dashboard and center-stack view. In addition, another camera housed in the head unit will periodically capture a still image of the cabin. This still image will be used to determine the presence of passengers, and it will be irretrievably blurred to protect the anonymity of unconsented passengers. A fifth video camera will be mounted in the rear deck to capture the rear and right-side views. Additionally, an alcohol sensor, an inci- dent button, an illuminance sensor, and inertial acceleration and gyroscopic sensors will be incorporated into the head unit assembly. The main unit houses the processing, recording, and communication functions of the sys- tem that will be active during any vehicle operation. The main unit features the ability to trans- fer limited data quantities via cellular interface and features other standard communication interfaces such as a controller area network (CAN) and universal serial bus (USB). Vehicle net- work information available from the CAN will include the activation status of variables, such as the antilock brake system (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC), brake assist, and trac- tion control. Lastly, a radar unit will be mounted to the front of the vehicle. Radar data will be transmitted via Bluetooth technology to the main unit to minimize installation time and costs. The radar will capture data concerning the relative position and speed of nearby objects, such as lead vehicles. In addition to the continuous data gathered on the vehicles, functional assessments will be conducted for all primary participants along dimensions related to cognitive, visual-cognitive, perceptual, physical, psychological predilection, and overall health. Crash investigation will also be performed on selected significant crashes of interest (e.g., police-reported or reportable crashes). Data from any or all sources may include highly personal or sensitive data (e.g., health information or crash records). As such, data security will be strictly maintained throughout the process. This includes fulfilling all IRB practices during data collection as well as during all sub- sequent analyses for the life of the data set. A suite of quality assurance, quality control, and project management activities will be applied throughout the study to ensure that the highest-quality data are collected within budget and schedule constraints. As previously summarized, the S05 study design project has developed a complete study plan for the SHRP 2 NDS. The resulting data, expected to exceed 1 petabyte in size--about the size of a million 1-gigabyte USB flash drives--will provide a wealth of information regarding driving behavior, lane departures, and intersection activities, which is anticipated to be of interest to transportation safety researchers and others for at least 20 years. It is important to note that all
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3 privacy protections promised regarding participants and their data are to be afforded in perpe- tuity. All future research efforts that seek to use the data collected in the SHRP 2 NDS will require IRB approval. In addition, researchers must establish a data-sharing agreement that guarantees privacy at least to the extent specified in the Informed Consent document. SHRP 2 anticipates the release of multiple projects under Safety Project S08, Analysis of In-Vehicle Field Study Data and Countermeasure Implications. The objective of S08 is to quantify the contribution of relevant driver, roadway, vehicle, and environmental factors to the research questions selected and assess the countermeasure implications of the findings. The knowl- edge gleaned from the SHRP 2 analyses, as well as the many additional analyses anticipated to be performed by other researchers, will support public policy, rulemaking, infrastructure improvements, and other--as yet unknown--activities targeted at reducing the fatalities on our nation's roadways.