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C H A P T E R 3 Data to Be Collected Driver Demographics VIN (vehicle identification number, nonpersonally identi- and Vehicle Inventory fying digits only); Make; Basic demographic data will be gathered from each primary Model; driver. The list currently includes the following: Year; Style/trim level (e.g., LX, EX, EX-L, or Touring for the 2010 Gender; Honda Odyssey); Date of birth; Body style (e.g., coupe, sedan, or wagon); Ethnicity; Color; Race; Safety features (e.g., antilock brake system [ABS]; electronic Country of birth; stability control [ESC]; front, side, curtain airbags; forward Education level; collision warning [FCW]; lane departure warning [LDW]; Marital status; adaptive cruise control [ACC]); and Household makeup; Infotainment features (e.g., integrated navigation or info- Household ownership; tainment systems). Working status; Vocation; Household income; Driver Assessment Household population (i.e., number of people living at par- ticipant's residence); In a study such as this, it is desirable to measure certain driving- Household age categories; related functional capabilities and limitations of the partici- Number of vehicles (i.e., number of vehicles residing at the pants. These, singly or combined in some fashion, may help to participant's residence); explain some of the variability in the driving or crash-related Zip code; data observed. If so, such factors may lead to the development Years of residence (i.e., number of years of residence in cur- of countermeasures targeting such individual differences or rent neighborhood); impairments. Vehicular travel (i.e., estimated number of miles driven last As part of the development of the driver testing suite, a year by the participant); review of the relevant literature was conducted to help devise Business use (i.e., is the instrumented vehicle used for busi- the assessment plan. In addition, a blue-ribbon panel of experts ness purposes?); thoroughly reviewed all aspects of the plan and provided invalu- Business purpose (i.e., if the instrumented vehicle is used for able, iterative feedback. All of their concerns were addressed business purposes, what are those business purposes?); and in some fashion, and all members of the panel ultimately indi- Licensure age (i.e., at what age did the participant receive cated their approval of the plan that is presented herein. his or her first driver's license?). On the basis of the exercise described, an approach was defined wherein each participant will be assessed on several In addition, the instrumented vehicle will be inventoried to dimensions thought to be relevant to driving and poten- record its basic facts as well as additional options and features. tially predictive of some portion of driving behaviors, prob- This inventory will include at least the following: lems, or crash-related events (e.g., crashes and near crashes). A 13

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14 systematic approach was undertaken to identify the most rele- be filled in at the assessment site or later (e.g., within a week vant dimensions and essential criteria in the development of installation). The first participant compensation payment of the resulting driver assessment testing plan. The sleep will be made after all driver assessment activities, including questionnaire was constructed in close coordination with the filling in all questionnaires, have been completed. Harvard Medical School Division of Sleep Medicine. The assessments to be implemented are listed in Tables 3.1 The selected relevant dimensions were executive function to 3.7. and cognition; visual perception; various visualcognitive, physical, and psychomotor abilities; personality factors; sleep- Table 3.1. Visual Perception Assessments related factors; medicines and medical conditions; driving Measurement In Person/ Estimated knowledge; and history. Executive function (EF) broadly Construct Description Online Time (min) encompasses a set of cognitive skills that are responsible for the planning, initiation, sequencing, and monitoring of com- High-light Optec 6500P In person contrast (Figure 3.1) 5 plex goal-directed behavior (Royall et al. 2002). The criteria sensitivity used in selecting the testing instruments to measure each of these dimensions were comprehensiveness, evidence of pre- Low-light contrast 5 dictive value, feasibility of administration, uniqueness, per- sensitivity sistence, and feasibility of replication. Near static The driver assessments are intended to be administered in 5 acuity a 2- to 3-hour period that will, for the most part, occur simul- Far static taneously with vehicle instrumentation. A pilot test of the 5 acuity suite of driver assessments was conducted and, on the basis of Depth the outcome of that pilot test, it is believed that they can be 5 perception administered within that time frame. The current driver test- Color vision 5 ing assessments are listed below. Some instruments will be administered by trained person- Peripheral 5 vision nel; other instruments include online questionnaires that can Table 3.2. Visual-Cognitive Assessments In Person/ Estimated Measurement Construct Description Online Time (min) Comments Spatial relationships Motor-Free Visual Perception Test In person 3 Included in DrivingHealth (MVPT) Visual Closure Subtest Inventory software Central vision and processing speed Useful Field of View In person 5 Divided/selective attention (UFOV)--Part 2 only Divided attention Trail-Making Test (A & B) In person 6 Rapid Pace Walk (discussed in In person Table 3.4 below but also included here, since it is recorded within the DrivingHealth Inventory software) Table 3.3. Cognitive and Psychomotor Assessments In Person/ Estimated Measurement Construct Description Online Time (min) Comments Executive function/working memory Connors' Continuous Performance In person 15 Reaction time Test II (CPT II), Ver. 5.1 Dementia Clock-Drawing Test: In person Administered to all Draw a clock 2 participants Put in all the numbers Set the hands at 10 past 11