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C H A P T E R 1 Introduction The second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) tion Research Institute (UMTRI) and Battelle Memorial Insti- is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) tute (Battelle) to lay the foundation for the most significant of the National Academies and has the goal of addressing the program of highway safety research in more than 30 years. challenges of moving people and goods efficiently and safely on The successful completion of this research effort will produce the nation's highways. There are four areas of emphasis asso- an unprecedented database of near-crash, precrash, crash, ciated with SHRP 2: Safety, Reliability, Renewal, and Capacity. driving behavior, driving performance, roadway informa- Each of these areas in turn encompasses several research tion, and vehicle kinematics data that will allow substantial projects. The SHRP 2 Safety research program evaluates the progress to be made in both the crash-causation and crash- role of driving behavior in traffic safety. While driving behav- countermeasure domains. By working to improve highway ior has largely been acknowledged as a primary factor in most safety through a more comprehensive understanding of driv- collisions, the complex interrelationship of driver performance ing behavior, the SHRP 2 Safety analysis projects, which will with factors such as roadway design, environmental condi- be conducted as a series of studies under Safety Project S08, tions, and vehicle features--and how those factors influence will advance the directives of the Safe, Accountable, Flexi- the risk of collisions and casualties--remains largely unknown. ble, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users Crash reports and investigations can capture only limited (SAFETEA-LU) legislation passed by Congress in 2005 and information on driver activities before the collision and cannot of the SHRP 2 Safety plan. provide comparable information on driving activities in non- This research agenda comes at a critical time in the history collision situations. By using innovative research methods com- of our nation's surface transportation safety. The project is part bined with advanced technologies, SHRP 2 sees opportunities of an effort to make driving safer in the United States. Vehic- to improve traffic safety via the research project described ular crashes, because they do not discriminate by age, consti- below. Specific goals of the SHRP 2 Safety program include tute a leading killer in terms of years of lost life. For example, the following: newly licensed teen drivers are three times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than their older counterparts. They are Understanding how drivers interact with and adapt to var- also more likely to die in a car crash than from all other sources ious factors such as of disease and accidental injury combined. The vehicle; This project's research is an ambitious undertaking. The Traffic and traffic control devices; required data collection, archiving, reduction, and analysis The environment; and efforts are of far greater magnitude and scope than any driv- Roadway characteristics. ing safety-related studies that have been attempted or accom- Assessing the changes in collision risk associated with each plished to date anywhere in the world. In fact, advances in of these factors and their interactions. sensors, computing, data storage, video compression, and data-mining technology have only recently made this proj- In response to the TRB SHRP 2 solicitation S05: Design ect feasible. In addition, the analytical methodologies, hier- of the In-Vehicle Driving Behavior and Crash Risk Study archies and models, and the generation of hypotheses to (Study Design), the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute be tested will need to be taken to a new level of quality and (VTTI) joined with the University of Michigan Transporta- utility. Since achieving a successful outcome is a difficult 4

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5 task, the design of the project is a critical element to the suc- Managing the data acquisition system (DAS) procurement, cess of the SHRP 2 NDS. testing, and warranties; This final report provides a high-level summary of the key Integrating data collection systems; areas of the planning study that will be used in supporting the Providing support to the S07 site contractors; NDS, which includes Safety Project S06 (Technical Coordina- Controlling quality aspects and managing oversight activ- tion and Independent Quality Assurance for Field Study), ities; and Safety Project S07 (In-Vehicle Driving Behavior Field Study), Managing and reporting all aspects related to the study. and Safety Project S04 (Roadway Data Collection). Figure 1.1 illustrates the general relationships among the SHRP 2 Safety Safety Project S07 is tasked with conducting the in-vehicle projects as well as their approximate time frames. In brief, the driving behavior field study that will be performed at six planning accomplished in S05 Study Design supports the pro- locations throughout the continental United States. The key curement of NDS data collection hardware (S12) as well as the responsibilities include the following: NDS data collection activities to be accomplished in S06 and S07. Similarly, the evaluations performed in Safety Project S03 Participant intake, including consenting, assessing, and ini- support the collection of the roadway data in the S04 projects. tiating participant compensation; The analysis projects to be released in Safety Project S08 will Installing DAS units on participant vehicles; be guided by the development of analysis methods and plans Retrieving hard drives on which the data have been collected in Safety Projects S01 and S02. Finally, all data collected in the and uploading the data to the S07 staging computer (which S04, S06, and S07 efforts will be integrated for S08 analysis will automatically transmit the data to the S06 servers); projects, as well as for other analyses going forward. Deinstalling DAS units when participants exit the study; and Safety Project S06 is intended to provide technical coordi- Troubleshooting problems encountered, with the assistance nation and independent quality assurance for the in-vehicle of the S06 contractor. driving behavior field studies (S07) and technical coordination with the roadway data collection projects (S04A and S04B). Safety Project S04 relates to the large field study of driver This implementation project, as designed in Safety Project S05, behavior and will provide and manage road information to includes the following: be used in safety analysis. It has two parts: A and B. Safety Project S04A represents the effort to provide quality assurance Coordinating the recruitment and protection of human and quality control for the S04B Safety Project. Safety Project subjects; S04A will acquire existing roadway data, provide technical Figure 1.1. SHRP 2 safety projects.

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6 coordination for collection of roadway data under Safety cover in each study area. Ultimately, this will lead to the pro- Project S04B, and produce the SHRP 2 Roadway Information duction of a roadway database in a geographic information Database. Safety Project S04B is focused on collecting roadway system (GIS) linked via an appropriate linear reference sys- characteristic data on selected roads within the in-vehicle tem, and merged with existing roadway data from other driving behavior field study areas. This work will be facilitated sources. The study will incorporate variables using a roadway by the technical coordination contract under S06 to help the measurement system qualified in the SHRP 2 Roadway Mea- S04 contractor(s) determine the most salient roadways to surement System.