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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 679 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Design of Concrete Structures Using High-Strength Steel Reinforcement

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 679 Design of Concrete Structures Using High-Strength Steel Reinforcement Bahram M. Shahrooz Richard A. Miller UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI Cincinnati, OH Kent A. Harries UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Pittsburgh, PA Henry G. Russell HENRY G. RUSSELL, INC. Glenview, IL Subscriber Categories Highways Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 679 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-77 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15541-0 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011921824 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 679 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer David Beal, Senior Program Officer (Retired) Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-77 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges Loren Risch, Kansas DOT, Topeka, KS (Chair) Marcus H. Ansley, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL (Deceased) Theresa Ahlborn, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Kamal Elnahal, US Coast Guard, Washington, DC Amy Eskridge, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Chad E. Knavel, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA Steven R. Maberry, New Mexico DOT, Santa Fe, NM Robert J. Peterman, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Basile Rabbat, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL Benjamin A. Graybeal, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report provides an evaluation of existing AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifica- tions relevant to the use of high-strength reinforcing steel and other grades of reinforcing steel having no discernable yield plateau. The report also includes recommended language to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications that will permit the use of high-strength reinforcing steel with specified yield strengths not greater than 100 ksi. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications allow the use of reinforcing steel con- forming to many different AASHTO and ASTM materials specifications, but limit the spec- ified yield strength to 75 ksi. Reinforcement is now available that has yield strength in excess of 75 ksi. Typical steel reinforcement has well-defined yield plateaus whereas high-strength reinforcing bars generally do not. The higher strength and the lack of a well-defined yield plateau could alter structural behavior and do not satisfy some of the design assumptions in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Research was needed to evaluate the use of high-strength reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The research was performed under NCHRP Project 12-77 by a team led by Dr. Bahram Shahrooz at the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH. Recommended revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to permit reinforcing bar yield strengths not exceeding 100 ksi were investigated and validated for concrete strengths up to 10 ksi and in some instances up to 15 ksi. A number of deliverables are provided as appendices. These appendices are not published herein but are available on the TRB website (Go to http://trb.org/Publications/Public/ PubsNCHRPProjectReports.aspx and look for NCHRP Report 679). These appendices are titled as follows. APPENDIX A--Material Properties APPENDIX B--Flexural Resistance of Members with Reinforcing Bars Lacking Well- Defined Yield Plateau APPENDIX C--Strain Limits for Tension-Controlled/Compression-Controlled and Strains to Allow Negative Moment Redistribution APPENDIX D--Flexure Beam Tests APPENDIX E--Fatigue of High-Strength Reinforcing Steel APPENDIX F--Shear Beam Tests APPENDIX G--Analytical Studies of Columns APPENDIX H--Beam Splice Tests APPENDIX I--Crack Control APPENDIX J--Survey Results APPENDIX K -- Design Examples APPENDIX L--Proposed Changes to Section 5 of the AASHTO LRFD Specification APPENDIX M--2010 AASHTO Bridge Committee Agenda Item

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-77 by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) at the University of Cincinnati in collaboration with the Univer- sity of Pittsburgh and Henry G. Russell, Inc. The principal investigators (PIs) on this project were Bahram M. Shahrooz (PI) and Richard A. Miller (Co-PI) from the University of Cincinnati, Kent A. Harries (Co-PI) from the University of Pittsburgh, and Henry G. Russell (Co-PI) from Henry G. Russell, Inc. Graduate students Jonathan Reis and Elizabeth Ward (University of Cincinnati) and Amir Soltani and Gabriel Zeno (University of Pittsburgh) performed the research under the supervision of the PI and Co-PIs. The experimental component of the research was completed at the University of Cincinnati Large Scale Test Facility (UCLSTF) and the Watkins-Haggart Structural Engineering Laboratory (WHSEL) at the University of Pittsburgh. David Breheim at the Uni- versity of Cincinnati is acknowledged for his technical assistance in various aspects of testing at UCLSTF. Daniel Kuchma of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is acknowledged for his early contri- butions to this project. The PIs wish to express their appreciation to Prestress Services, Melbourne, Ken- tucky, for fabrication of prestressed girders. All A1035 reinforcing steel used in this study was provided by MMFX Inc. Hilltop Concrete in Cincin- nati and Frank Bryan Concrete in Pittsburgh are gratefully acknowledged for their efforts in getting the concrete mixes used "just so." Panel member Marcus H. Ansley, who passed away suddenly on June 16, 2010, is sincerely thanked for his major contributions to this project. His pioneering research on flexural and shear performance of members using A1035 reinforcement was invaluable. His insistence on examining ductility of flexural members with A1035 reinforcement helped the research team develop revised strength reduction factors. The research team would like to dedicate this report to Mr. Ansley.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Background 5 1.1 Introduction 6 1.2 Objective of NCHRP Project 12-77 6 1.3 Literature Review 6 1.3.1 Mechanical Properties of A1035 Reinforcing Steel 7 1.3.2 Tension Properties of A1035 Reinforcing Steel 8 1.3.3 Flexural Reinforcement 9 1.3.4 Shear Reinforcement 10 1.3.5 Compression Members 10 1.3.6 Bond and Development 11 1.3.7 Serviceability Considerations 13 1.3.8 Corrosion Performance of Reinforcing Steel Grades 14 1.4 Survey of Use of High-Strength Steel Reinforcement in Bridge Structures 15 1.4.1 Survey of Use of Stainless Steel Reinforcement in Bridge Structures 15 1.4.2 Reported Use of A1035 Reinforcing Steel in Highway Bridge Infrastructure 16 Chapter 2 Research Program and Findings 16 2.1 Research Approach 16 2.2 Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Steel 16 2.2.1 ASTM A1035 Reinforcing Steel 18 2.3 Flexural Reinforcement 18 2.3.1 Flexural Resistance 21 2.3.2 Tension-Controlled and Compression-Controlled Strain Limits for High-Strength ASTM A1035 Reinforcing Bars 23 2.3.3 Moment Redistribution 23 2.3.4 Experimental Evaluation 25 2.3.5 Summary and Recommendations 26 2.4 Fatigue Performance of High-Strength Reinforcing Steel 27 2.4.1 AASHTO Fatigue Equation and Design with High-Strength Steel 27 2.4.2 Effect of High-Strength Steel on the AASHTO Fatigue Provisions 28 2.4.3 Fatigue of Slabs (AASHTO LRFD Section 9) 29 2.4.4 Fatigue Test Specimens 30 2.4.5 Summary of Fatigue Tests and Conclusions 32 2.5 Shear Reinforcement 32 2.5.1 Shear Resistance 32 2.5.2 Experimental Evaluation 37 2.6 Shear Friction 38 2.6.1 Experimental Program 40 2.6.2 Experimental Results 43 2.6.3 Conclusions with Regard to Shear Friction

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43 2.7 Compression Members 44 2.7.1 Column Capacity 45 2.7.2 Spacing of Spiral Reinforcement 48 2.7.3 Summary and Conclusions 48 2.8 Bond and Anchorage 48 2.8.1 Splice Development 50 2.8.2 Hook Anchorage 55 2.8.3 Summary and Conclusions 55 2.9 Serviceability Considerations 56 2.9.1 Deflections of Flexural Members 57 2.9.2 Crack Widths 58 2.9.3 Summary and Conclusions 59 Chapter 3 Recommendations, Conclusions, and Suggested Research 59 3.1 Summary of AASHTO LRFD Clauses Having Recommended Changes 59 3.1.1 Proposed Changes to Section 3 of the LRFD Specifications 59 3.1.2 Proposed Changes to Section 5 of the LRFD Specifications 59 3.1.3 Proposed Changes to Section 9 of the LRFD Specifications 61 3.2 Conclusions 61 3.2.1 Yield Strength 61 3.2.2 Flexure 62 3.2.3 Fatigue 62 3.2.4 Shear 62 3.2.5 Shear Friction 62 3.2.6 Compression 62 3.2.7 Bond and Development 62 3.2.8 Serviceability--Deflections and Crack Widths 62 3.3 Recommended Research 62 3.3.1 Application in Seismic Zones 2, 3, and 4 63 3.3.2 Fatigue 63 3.3.3 Shear Friction 63 3.3.4 Moment Redistribution 63 3.3.5 Control of Flexural Cracking and Corrosion 64 References 68 Notation 72 Appendices Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.