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CONTENTS (cont'd) CONTENTS I. Introduction, 3 VI. Administrative Enforcement of Title VI Complaints, 25 II. Civil Rights Issues Arising Under Title VI of the Civil A. Procedures Applicable to Complaints, 25 Rights Act of 1964 When Public Transportation Projects B. Title VI Administrative Complaints Based on Reduction in Service or Allegedly Discriminate Against Minority or Ethnic Increase in Fares, 26 Groups, 5 C. Reported Title VI Complaints in the Past 10 Years Based on Service Reductions or Fare Increases, 27 A. Prohibition of Intentional Discrimination Caused by Disparate Treatment Under Section 601 of Title VI, 5 D. Transit Agencies' Responses to Title VI Complaints, 27 B. No Cause of Action Under Disparate-Impact Regulations VII. Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Transit Promulgated Under Section 602 of Title VI to Effectuate the Provisions of Section 601, 5 Service, 28 C. Executive Order 12898 (1994) Requiring Federal Agencies to Combat A. Statutory Provisions Applicable to Public Transportation Providers, 28 Directly Disproportionate and Adverse Effects of Their Programs, B. DOT Regulations Implementing the ADA, 29 Policies, and Activities on Minority and Low-Income Populations, 6 C. The Availability of a Private Right of Action Under the ADA, 30 D. USDOT Title VI Order (1997) Incorporating the Principles of Environmental Justice in Decision-Making Practices of All USDOT D. The ADA and Paratransit Service, 31 Programs, Policies, and Activities, 6 E. ADA Administrative Compliance and Enforcement, 33 E. Guidance Provided by FTA Title VI Circular (2007) for Recipients F. Judicial Claims Under the ADA for Reduction in Transit Service or Increase and Subrecipients of FTA Financial Assistance Regarding in Fares, 34 Compliance with Title VI and Integration of the USDOT Order as Well as Policy Guidance Concerning Limited-English-Proficient G. Whether State Transit Agencies Have Sovereign Immunity, 34 Persons, 7 H. Statute of Limitations in ADA Cases, 35 F. Application of Principles of Environmental Justice to Avoid, Minimize, or Mitigate Disproportionately High and Adverse Human VIII. Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Private Health and Environmental Effects on Low-Income Populations, 9 Transportation Entities, 35 G. Executive Order 13166 (2000), Department of Justice and USDOT A. Prohibition of Discrimination in Public Accommodations, 35 Policy Guidance, and the 2007 FTA Title VI Circular Regarding Access to Transit Services for LEP Persons and Compliance with B. Public Transportation Services Provided by Private Entities, 36 Title VI, 11 C. ADA Title III Regulations, 37 H. Recipients' and Subrecipients' Obligation to Promote Inclusive Public Participation, 12 D. Administrative Action and Enforcement, 37 I. Applicability of Title VI and the ADA to the American Recovery and E. Transit Cases Arising Under Title III, 38 Reinvestment Act of 2009, 13 IX. Discussion of Practices When Reducing Service or Increasing III. Judicial Interpretation of Sections 601 and 602 Fares, 38 of Title VI, 14 A. Transit Agencies' Title VI Policies, 38 A. Section 601 Proscribes Only Intentional Discrimination, 14 B. Low-Income Populations, 39 B. No Private Right to Enforce Regulations Promulgated Under Section C. Limited-English-Proficiency Persons, 40 602 of Title VI to Effectuate Section 601 of Title VI, 15 D. Transit Agencies' ADA Policies, 42 IV. Proof of Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact, 15 E. Transit Agency Coordination, 43 A. Proof of Disparate Treatment: The Arlington Heights Factors, 15 F. Transit Agency Resources, 44 B. Title VI and Recent Cases, 17 G. Policy Regarding Review of Legal Issues When Reducing Service or C. Pre-Sandoval Disparate-Impact Cases, 21 Increasing Fares, 45 D. Other Issues Relating to Title VI Claims, 23 X. Conclusion, 46 V. Whether Disparate-Impact Claims Are Actionable Under Appendix A: Survey Questions, 47 Section 1983, 23 Appendix B: Transit Agencies Responding to the Survey, 51 A. Cases Holding That Disparate-Impact Claims Are Not Actionable Under Section 1983, 23 B. Sovereign Immunity and Section 1983, 24