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14 TABLE 17 ing authorities; and fare subsidies from the city or the pri- PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR DAY-TO-DAY vate sector. Half of the respondents indicated that the tran- OPERATION OF THE DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR sit agency does not use federal funds for the downtown No. of circulator, 44% indicated that federal funds were used, and Agencies % Agencies Responsible Entity Responding Responding 6% were not sure. Transit Agency 32 76.2 City 4 9.5 Table 20 elaborates on private-sector contributions. The Private-Sector Entity 2 4.8 private sector participates in circulator funding primarily TMA 1 2.4 through downtown businesses or business improvement dis- Other 3 7.1 tricts. "Other" responses include a ski resort, private develop- Total Responding Agencies 42 100 ment revenue, and the TMA, but largely redirecting county TMA = Transportation Management Association. grants and taxes back to the county. OPERATION Table 18 shows the nature of the interaction in the eight cases where the transit agency does not have primary respon- Several different types of vehicles are used as downtown sibility for day-to-day operations. The relationship between circulators, as shown in Table 21. Replica trolleys and his- the responsible entity and the transit agency is characterized toric streetcars are appealing, but many agencies use regular by cooperation; no respondent reported a hostile relationship transit buses. These are often differentiated with a special with the transit agency. paint scheme or other means of branding, as indicated in Table 22. The "Other" vehicle in Table 21 is a single-car, Table 19 presents funding sources for the downtown cir- light rail vehicle. culator. The most common arrangement (41% of respon- dents) is for the transit agency to pay all costs; however, Tables 23 and 24 indicate that the transit agency is most there are a variety of other funding situations. "Other" likely to purchase and maintain the vehicles. "Other" pur- responses included more complex combinations of funding chasers include the county, TMA, contractor, MPO, and stu- sources; partial or full funding from the state, the county, dent government. "Other" maintainers include the county and the metropolitan planning organization (MPO); and park- a combination of the county and the contractor. TABLE 18 INTERACTION WITH THE TRANSIT AGENCY REGARDING THE DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR No. of Agencies % Agencies Nature of Interaction Responding Responding Cooperation--Contact as Needed 4 50.0 Close Cooperation--Frequent Contact (at least 3 37.5 weekly) Neutral--The Circulator Is Viewed as a Separate 1 12.5 Entity Total Responding Agencies 8 100 TABLE 19 FUNDING FOR THE DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR No. of Agencies % Agencies Funding Source Responding Responding Transit agency pays all costs 17 40.5 Transit agency splits costs with private sector 7 16.7 Transit agency splits costs with city/other public 6 14.3 entity City pays all costs 5 11.9 Grant to city specifically for the circulator 2 4.8 Grant to transit agency specifically for the circulator 1 2.4 City splits costs with private sector 1 2.4 Other 10 23.8 Total Responding Agencies 42 100 Note: Multiple responses allowed; percentages do not add to 100%.

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15 TABLE 20 Table 25 shows start and end times for the downtown cir- PRIVATE-SECTOR FUNDING OF DOWNTOWN CIRCULATORS culator by day of the week. The most common start time is No. of during the 6:00 a.m. hour on weekdays, during the 9:00 a.m. Agencies % Agencies hour on Saturday, and during the 10:00 a.m. hour on Sunday. Private-Sector Entity Responding Responding The most common end time (defined as the start time of the Downtown Businesses or Business 5 50.0 Improvement Districts final trip) is during the 6:00 p.m. hour on weekdays and Sun- TMA 1 10.0 day and at or after midnight on Saturday. Tourism Organization 1 10.0 Other 3 30.0 Table 26 shows spans of service and headways for the Total Responding Agencies 10 100 downtown circulator by day of the week. The table reports TMA = Transportation Management Association. median, minimum, and maximum spans and headways. Most respondents provided the prevailing headway throughout the TABLE 21 day, but several reported a range of headways. Prevailing VEHICLES USED AS DOWNTOWN CIRCULATORS headway and range of headways are shown separately in No. of Table 26. Span of service is longest on weekdays and shortest Agencies % Agencies on Sunday. Median prevailing headways are 15 min on week- Vehicle Responding Responding days and Saturday and 12 min on Sunday. The apparent Rubber Tired Trolley/Historic Streetcar 13 31.7 anomaly of more frequent service on Sunday occurs because Transit Bus 30 Feet or Larger 7 17.1 only 24 circulators out of a total of 45 operate on Sunday and Transit Bus Under 30 Feet 7 17.1 these have the most frequent service. Median ranges of head- Mix of Vehicles 7 17.1 ways are shortest on weekdays and longest on Sunday. Electric or Electric-Hybrid Vehicle 3 7.3 Cutaway 1 2.4 Table 27 indicates that the majority of respondents do not Steel Wheel Trolley 1 2.4 charge a fare on their downtown circulator. The fare is a nom- Van 1 2.4 Other 1 2.4 inal amount (20 or 25 cents) for 6 of the 16 systems that spec- Total Responding Agencies 41 100 ified a fare. One surprise noted in the table is that seven agencies charge $1.00 or more for downtown circulator ser- Note: Percentages do not add to 100% due to rounding. vice. Three of these agencies have tourists as their primary market, including two that charge the highest fare ($2.00). In TABLE 22 three other cases, the downtown circulator fare is less than the BRANDING OF DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR VEHICLES base adult fare on the transit system. In the seventh case, the No. of fare for the downtown circulator is identical to the regular Agencies % Agencies Specially Branded? Responding Responding transit fare. Yes 26 63.4 No 15 36.6 A wide variety of fare media is accepted on the downtown Total Responding Agencies 41 100 circulator, as shown in Table 28. Cash is almost universally accepted, and transit agency passes are also a common means of payment. "Other" responses include a smart card or regional TABLE 23 WHO PURCHASES THE VEHICLES? electronic monthly pass, an all-day individual or family circu- lator pass, no fare for seniors, and occasional prepaid fare No. of Agencies % Agencies agreement with a specific convention that allows attendees to Vehicle Purchaser Responding Responding ride free with their convention ID. Transit Agency 32 78.0 City 4 9.8 Introduction of or revisions to a downtown circulator route Other 5 12.2 might offer the opportunity to restructure other routes in the Total Responding Agencies 41 100 downtown area. Most respondents indicated that this did not occur (see Table 29); however, 13 agencies did change other TABLE 24 routes as a result of the circulator. In most cases, these agen- WHO MAINTAINS THE VEHICLES? cies streamlined routes in the downtown area and facilitated No. of transfers between regular routes and the circulator. Agencies % Agencies Vehicle Maintainer Responding Responding Agencies have taken different approaches to the integration Transit Agency 27 65.9 of the downtown circulator with the transit network, as shown Contractor 10 24.4 City 2 4.9 in Table 30. Connections are provided at major transfer points Other 2 4.9 for the majority of circulators. Almost 20% of respondents Total Responding Agencies 41 100 indicated that there is no integration and that the circulator is separate from the rest of the transit system. Lack of integration

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16 TABLE 25 START AND END TIMES FOR DOWNTOWN CIRCULATORS BY DAY OF THE WEEK Weekday Saturday Sunday Time No. of No. of No. of % Agencies % Agencies % Agencies Agencies Agencies Agencies Responding Responding Responding Responding Responding Responding Start Time Before 6 a.m. 10 22.2 4 12.5 3 12.5 66:59 a.m. 15 33.3 3 9.4 1 4.2 77:59 a.m. 7 15.6 3 9.4 2 8.3 88:59 a.m. 4 8.9 5 15.6 3 12.5 99:59 a.m. 4 8.9 9 28.1 5 20.8 1010:59 a.m. 3 6.7 6 18.8 8 33.3 11 a.m. and 2 4.4 2 6.3 2 8.3 after Total 45 100 32 100 24 100 End Time Before 5 p.m. 2 4.4 -- -- 1 4.2 55:59 p.m. 6 13.3 6 18.8 4 16.7 66:59 p.m. 10 22.2 7 21.9 7 29.2 77:59 p.m. 8 17.8 4 12.5 3 12.5 88:59 p.m. 2 4.4 -- -- 1 4.2 99:59 p.m. 4 8.9 1 3.1 1 4.2 1010:59 2 4.4 1 3.1 1 4.2 p.m. 1111:59 4 8.9 4 12.5 1 4.2 p.m. 12 a.m. and 7 15.6 9 28.1 5 20.8 after Total 45 100 32 100 24 100 TABLE 26 SPANS OF SERVICE AND HEADWAYS FOR DOWNTOWN CIRCULATORS BY DAY OF THE WEEK Measure Weekday Saturday Sunday Median Span 13:00 11:25 9:38 Minimum Span 3:00 6:29 5:51 Maximum Span 21:00 20:30 19:30 Median Prevailing Headway 15 15 12 Minimum Prevailing Headway 6 3.75 3.75 Maximum Prevailing Headway 60 60 60 Median Headway Range 10 to 15 12 to 15 12.5 to 17.5 Minimum Headway Range 1.25 to 3.75 7 to 10 7 to 10 Maximum Headway Range 20 to 30 20 to 30 20 to 30 TABLE 27 TABLE 28 DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR FARE FARE MEDIA ACCEPTED ON DOWNTOWN CIRCULATOR No. of Agencies % Agencies No. of Agencies % Agencies Fare Responding Responding Fare Media Responding Responding Free 23 54.8 Cash 17 94.4 20 to 25 Cents 6 14.3 Transit Agency Monthly Passes 14 77.8 50 to 75 Cents 4 9.5 Transit Agency Day Passes 12 66.7 $1.00 or Higher 7 16.7 Transit Agency Other Passes 12 66.7 Fare Not Specified 2 4.8 Transit Agency Transfers 8 44.4 Total Responding Agencies 42 100 Transfers Within Circulator System 6 33.3 Downtown Circulator Passes 4 22.2 Note: Percentages do not add to 100% due to rounding. Tokens 4 22.2 Other 5 27.8 Total Responding Agencies 18 100% Note: Multiple responses allowed; percentages do not add to 100%.