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6 TABLE 1 TRANSIT AGENCIES BY SIZE No. of Vehicles Operated in No. of Agencies % Agencies Maximum Service Responding Responding Fewer than 250 57 73.1 250 to 999 14 17.9 1,000 or more 7 9.0 Total 78 100 To guard against missing any agencies that have imple- mented downtown circulators and to ensure a broader sample FIGURE 1 Map of FTA regions. an identical e-mail message was sent to APTA transit agency members inviting their participation in the survey. Thirty-seven completed surveys were received from Most of these smaller agencies were not included in the the 42 agencies in the core sample, an 88% response rate. core sample. An additional 41 agencies not included in the core sample became aware of the survey and also participated, for a final Table 2 shows the distribution of responding agencies sample total of 78 agencies. Of the 78 respondents, 74 were by FTA region. Regions IX (southwest), IV (southeast), III transit agencies, 3 city departments of transportation (DOTs) (mid-Atlantic), and V (Great Lakes) had the most agencies responsible for operation and oversight of the downtown cir- responding. Figure 1 is a map of FTA regions. Figure 2 culator, and 1 a transportation management association presents the distribution of survey respondents across the (TMA) affiliated with a downtown business improvement United States and Canada. Case study locations are shown district. The 78 agencies operating within the cities in the by a large dot. sample range in size from fewer than 25 to more than 2,000 buses operating in peak periods. Note that this is the overall ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT size of the transit fleet, not the number of downtown circula- tor buses operated. Following this introductory chapter, chapter two summarizes the findings of the literature review. Chapter three, the first of Table 1 presents the distribution of responding agencies two chapters to present the results of the survey, focuses on the by size. In cases where the responding agency was not the origin, structure, operation, and administration of downtown primary transit agency, the size of the primary agency was circulators. Chapter four discusses the responding agencies' used to measure size. More than 70% of all responding assessment of the success of the downtown circulators. This agencies operate fewer than 250 vehicles in peak service. chapter summarizes agency satisfaction with the circulator, potential improvements, and lessons learned. Chapter five reports detailed findings from each of the seven case studies. The selection process for case studies had several criteria: TABLE 2 (1) include transit agencies of various sizes in different parts TRANSIT AGENCIES BY FTA REGION of the country; (2) include agencies at various stages of the No. of implementation and operation of downtown circulators; Agencies % Agencies (3) select a variety of agencies charged with operating or FTA Region Responding Responding overseeing the operation of downtown circulators, includ- I 3 3.8 ing transit agencies, municipal DOTs, and a private-sector II 5 6.4 entity; and (4) include at least one agency that has discontin- III 10 12.8 ued its downtown circulator to reflect real difficulties facing IV 14 17.9 downtown circulators. Chapter six summarizes the findings, V 10 12.8 presents conclusions from this synthesis project, and offers VI 7 9.0 items for further study. Findings from the surveys and par- VII 0 0.0 ticularly the case studies provide an assessment of strengths VIII 1 1.3 and weaknesses and likely future directions. IX 17 21.8 X 8 10.3 Appendix A presents a copy of the on-line survey. Appen- Non-U.S. (Canada) 3 3.8 dix B provides survey results by question. Appendix C is a Total 78 100.0 list of all transit agencies participating in the survey.

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7 FIGURE 2 Survey respondents and case studies.