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9 visiting tourists and benefits the town's permanent residents Krambeck and Emerson (2008) present the perspective of and businesses (7). the Downtown Development Authority in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in planning a downtown streetcar (14). The authors The primary focus of an article by Hanson (2003) is on noted that a primary benefit is that by using a streetcar as a managing parking in downtown Indianapolis, but it also dis- vehicle for economic development the Authority needs only cusses plans for a circulator or electric bus linking downtown to put up a minimal amount of funding to achieve significant attractions and a People Mover, a high-tech elevated rail ser- investment in the downtown area. vice connecting medical facilities (8). Hanson stresses the need for proactive collaboration among city government, law Hickey and Delgado (2007) describe how the city of enforcement agencies, private parking operators, and busi- Miami is considering a circulator system to provide local nesses to make sure parking complements economic devel- connectivity by means of an urban transit system from the opment. Hurst (2005) describes the People Mover system in downtown Miami central business district (CBD) to the downtown Indianapolis and presents the project experience Miami Design District and adjacent redeveloping areas (15). after two years of operation (9). This paper identified the range of credible vehicle options within this alternative by first determining vehicle require- Liu and Lau (2008) documented a feasibility study of an ments based on the latest physical design for the streetcar automatic people mover application for Newark, New Jersey alternative, then compared those requirements with a range of (10). The paper considered potential benefits of replacing the candidate vehicles currently available in the North American current loop, a small bus circulation system in downtown market. Newark, with automatic people mover technology. Potential benefits include reduction in passenger walking, waiting and Volinski and Perk (2000) prepared a feasibility study to overall travel time, and provision of an anchor for downtown determine whether or not local circulator systems could be business development. designed and funded in Miami (16). It notes that "the key to feasibility is funding" and identifies several possible routes Fox and Lancaster (2006) documented development of vin- tage rail trolley service in Memphis, Tennessee, and presented and funding sources. considerations for integration of light rail regional service on the existing system (11). Topics included public perceptions of the existing trolley system and proposed light rail system, SUMMARY infrastructure elements that need to be addressed, and planning coordination in the Memphis region. The literature review supports the initial observation that there is not a significant body of research documenting downtown Bogren (2009) provides an overview of streetcar and trol- circulators. Many of the reports described in this chapter are ley urban transit development in Seattle, Washington (12). The cursory in nature, providing either a broad overview of trends author's primary emphasis is on attracting employers and or an introductory description of a particular circulator without encouraging job creation. in-depth analysis. A few are more thorough, delving into details on the planning and implementation of a specific down- Appendix E of TCRP Report 117 (2007) summarizes town circulator or reviewing common factors over several case design and operational impacts of the LYMMO system, a bus studies. These reports provide a good starting point for this rapid transit downtown circulator in Orlando, Florida (13). A study. primary goal of LYMMO is to connect parking garages at the fringe of downtown and the transit center with downtown des- The next two chapters present the results of a survey of tinations. Given the focus of TCRP Report 117, the design, transit agencies regarding downtown circulator systems. The traffic operational, and safety elements of the system receive survey results provide a snapshot of the state of the art as it the greatest attention. exists today with regard to downtown circulators.