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12 CHAPTER THREE PAVEMENT INVENTORY AND EVALUATION The inventory of pavement infrastructure is the basic build- 2. Branch--a part of the network that serves a specific ing block of an APMS. Because pavements deteriorate with purpose. Typical branches are runways, taxiways, aprons time, the inventory includes past and current condition of or ramps, and airside pavements; for example, each pavements and anticipates future condition. This chapter pro- airport runway is considered to be a branch. vides a brief description of the main features of pavement 3. Section--a part of a branch that has a uniform pave- inventory and procedures used for the assessment of pavement ment structure (and construction and maintenance condition. Evaluation procedures are described for pave- history), traffic loads, and pavement condition. It is the ment surface distresses, roughness, friction, and pavement basic repair unit. deflection testing. With the exception of a few small airports, 4. Sample units--a part of a section created to carry all airports surveyed carry out periodic pavement condition out pavement condition surveys based on the ASTM surveys of runways using the Pavement Condition Index standard. The maximum size of the sampling unit for (PCI), with an average survey frequency of 3.4 years. AC and PCC pavements is specified in the standard. Data storage and retrieval is facilitated by APMS software PAVEMENT INVENTORY such as MicroPAVER (2003). As a minimum, the pavement inventory data for each section includes the following: The documentation of pavement inventory is a prerequisite for a systematic pavement condition evaluation and the selec- Section identification--functional class (branch) and tion of M&R treatments on the network level. On the project dimensions of the pavement section. level, pavement inventory data are essential for the design of Location of the section--for example, within the branch, M&R treatments. The inventory includes the size and main keel, or outer wings. characteristics of pavement assets and their condition. Prefer- Pavement structure--date of the original construction ably, pavement inventory is viewed and organized as part of and the description of pavement structure. The descrip- an airport asset inventory. The U.S.DOT developed the Data tion includes thickness and basic material properties of Integration Primer (2001), which explains principles and all layers, both the original layers and the subsequent options for developing integrated asset management databases. changes. There is also the ASTM Standard E177-96, Standard Guide Subgrade and drainage characteristics--subgrade for Prioritization of Data Needs for Pavement Management type and the presence of subdrains and edge drains. (ASTM 2002). Maintenance history--types and dates of subsequent pavement M&R treatments, including the age of a current A pavement inventory divides the airport pavement net- pavement surface. work into homogeneous pavement sections with the same Pavement condition data--includes past and current pavement structure and a similar pavement condition through- data. out. A pavement section is the basic building block for pave- Traffic data--number of aircraft operations and type ment inventory. It is also a basic unit for pavement preserva- of aircraft. tion decision making. An M&R project can be carried out on a single pavement section. In other words, a section is estab- Pavement inventory data are stored in an APMS database, lished as a "repair unit"--a portion of the network that can be such as MicroPAVER, that has the capability to graphically managed and repaired independently from other sections display archived data. (Tighe and Covalt 2008). The pavement network is typically divided into four lev- PAVEMENT EVALUATION PRINCIPLES els according to specifications given in ASTM Standard D 5340 (2003) or in FAA Advisory Circular on Guidelines and APMS pavement evaluation includes field measurements of the Procedures for Maintenance of Airport Pavements (2007): current state of pavement characteristics and recording them for future use. It encompasses the evaluation of pavement surface 1. Network--represents the entire pavement infrastruc- distresses, roughness, friction, and pavement strength. The ture managed by the airport authority. main principles of airport pavement evaluation include: