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39 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS There is extensive literature on the subject of airport pavement veys of pavement surface distresses on the candidate pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) technology, including sections, such as sections with newly constructed and rehabil- the technology of pavement preservation treatments. How- itated pavements aids in the selection and timing of preventive ever, the information is dispersed and not always current. Air- pavement maintenance treatments. port pavement maintenance practices generally follow the objectives, management principles, and methodology of road- There is no recognized single pavement roughness standard way pavement management practices. Airfield and roadway for in-service airport pavements that could be used to identify pavements are built and maintained using the same construc- M&R needs based on pavement roughness. However, the tion technology, materials, and methods. Also, airport and FAA has recently proposed roughness criteria for runways roadway pavement management systems frequently use simi- addressing isolated bump events. Establishing practical rough- lar pavement management software. ness standards for the scheduling of M&R treatments on in- service airport pavements continues. All types of pavement preservation treatments, including maintenance treatments, preventive maintenance treatments, The performance of specific M&R treatments, particularly and rehabilitation treatments, are considered together when treatments that are not routinely used, are typically tracked by developing pavement preservation strategies for individual pavement managers. This enables the airport authority to pavement sections and for Capital Improvement Programs. expand, modify, or discontinue M&R treatments based on their documented field performance. Pavement management Preventive maintenance has a special standing in the area of software applications, such as MicroPaver or AIRPAVE, cur- pavement preservation. The preventive maintenance program rently do or will include features to facilitate the evaluation of has the potential to improve cost-effectiveness of pavement past pavement M&R treatments. preservation activities, promote the use of frequent detailed pavement condition surveys, and facilitate the establishment About 35% of responding airports have recently (during of a dedicated budget for pavement maintenance. The need for the past 10 years or so) evaluated the performance of new preventive pavement maintenance is well-recognized. About and innovative M&R treatments. The data on the cost- 56% of all respondents systematically identify pavements that effectiveness of new and innovative treatments, as well as would benefit most from preventive maintenance and approxi- mately 35% of respondents implement preventive maintenance the treatments that utilize proprietary products, are lacking. treatments at the right time. Approximately 33% of airport agencies have a dedicated budget for pavement maintenance. Seventy percent of airports surveyed had both asphalt con- crete (AC) and portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements on The main challenge facing airport authorities is not the at least some types of airport facilities, and 30% of airports had type of M&R treatment, but is to justify that M&R treatments both AC and PCC pavements on runways. Consequently, are necessary using a judicious and objective process, and to many airports need to have staff that has expertise in the tech- obtain funding for their implementation. nology of both AC and PCC pavements. To present informa- tion in a concise structured way, 24 common M&R treatments Pavement management technology is mature. More than were systematically described in the Catalog of Airport Pave- 80% of all airport authorities surveyed operate an Airport ment Preservation Treatments in Appendix B. Pavement Management System (APMS) or are in the process of developing one. All airport agencies surveyed that have an The 50 airport survey sample size did not permit desegre- APMS use a pavement management software application, pri- gation of results by geographical or environmental regions, marily MicroPAVER. It is expected that the new web-based or by airport size. FAA pavement management software now under develop- ment, called AIRPAVE, will further enhance the technology Multi-year prioritization using incremental cost-effec- of the APMS. tiveness analysis, the most advanced method for optimizing the allocation of available funding used by transportation Based on the survey, the average frequency of Pavement agencies administering large highway networks, is seldom Condition Index surveys was 3.3 years. Annual condition sur- used for airport pavement networks. The reasons for slower

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40 implementation include smaller airport pavement networks, A comprehensive review of an APMS could use gap greater importance of operational issues at airports, and lim- analysis that identifies differences between the existing man- itations of existing airport pavement management software. agement procedures and those based on the best appropriate practice. The comparison between the results achieved by Life-cycle cost analysis, a systematic assessment of other different APMSs can be assessed through benchmarking. treatment attributes important to an airport, can aid in the selection of alternative M&R treatments. These attributes Further research includes making pavement preservation may include, for example, agency experience with the per- knowledge available to practitioners by organizing and syn- formance of the alternatives, impact on airport operations, thesizing information and data in an interactive electronic and environmental and sustainability considerations. format.