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41 GLOSSARY OF TERMS This section contains the definitions of 26 key terms used in period of time (often 20 years or more) taking into account the airport pavement management area. The objective of the life-cycle costs. The life-cycle costs include agency costs glossary of terms is to facilitate communication between all (initial construction costs and all subsequent maintenance concerned parties. It is not intended to override the established and rehabilitation costs), as well as user costs (such as the usage of terms by various agencies. The terms are listed in an cost of operational delays or restrictions during construc- alphabetical order. tion). The quantification of user costs in monetary terms is not always used and is not always possible. Airport Pavement Maintenance Management Program-- Multi-year planning--A process that plans future pavement The main characteristics of this program are defined by preservation activities on the network level over a period Public Law 103-305 (2004). Briefly, the program specifies of 5 years or more. how airport agencies should monitor and report the condi- Network-level management--Management activities car- tion of airport pavements to be eligible for federal funding ried out at the network level concern all or a substantial for pavement preservation. part of airport pavements. Decisions made at the network Airport Pavement Maintenance Management System-- level are typically planning, budgeting, or policy decisions. Application of management principles to the maintenance of Pavement condition--A measure of the way the pavement airport pavements. The terms airport pavement maintenance serves the intended purpose. Pavement condition can be management system and airport pavement management described using the characteristics of individual defects system are sometimes use interchangeably depending on the such as roughness or the lack of pavement friction, or using understanding of what constitutes pavement maintenance. characteristics that combine the influence of several defects Airport Pavement Management System (APMS)--A such as a Pavement Condition Index (PCI). Pavement con- pavement management system (defined subsequently) dition assessment also includes pavement structural evalu- applied to airfield pavements. ation and testing. Asset management--A systematic process of maintaining, Pavement maintenance--A strategy to maintain pavements upgrading, and operating physical assets cost-effectively. in the desired condition. Traditionally, for roadway pave- Pavement maintenance is part of the management of airport ments, pavement maintenance treatments are those that do assets. It is typically assumed that an asset management not substantially improve pavement condition or add to process can provide a logical approach to the management pavement strength, such as crack and joint sealing. For of assets by combining engineering science with sound airport pavements, the term pavement maintenance often business and accounting practices. The other desired feature encompasses both maintenance and rehabilitation treat- of asset management is that it can facilitate coordination of ments. The possible reason for using "maintenance" as a syn- planning and funding actions across all types of physical onym for "maintenance and rehabilitation" is Public Law assets, such as pavements, buildings, and guidance and 103-305 (1994). This law requires that a public airport must lighting installations. implement an "effective airport pavement maintenance- Budgeting--A process of developing, securing, and admin- management program as a precondition for being consid- istering a budget. ered for funding of replacement or reconstruction of airport Corrective maintenance--Also called reactive mainte- pavements." This phraseology links a maintenance man- nance, is defined as a maintenance activity performed after agement program with replacement and reconstruction. pavement defects occur; that is, loss of pavement friction, The Government Accounting Standards Board, which influ- rutting, or cracking. Corrective maintenance treatments ences how expenses appear on financial statements, defines are generally less desirable than preventive maintenance maintenance as the act of keeping fixed assets in an accept- treatments. However, preventive maintenance treatments, able condition; that is, keeping conditions at satisfactory such as crack sealing, also correct pavement defects. It is rather than at initial design levels (Lemer 2004). In this also possible that a specific corrective maintenance treat- report, the term pavement maintenance means the tradi- ment is the right treatment at the right time. Other differ- tional definition of maintenance as a treatment that does not ences between corrective and maintenance are discussed substantially modify the existing pavement surface layers. under preventive maintenance. Pavement maintenance treatment--A specific mainte- Emergency maintenance--Maintenance treatments per- nance action; a part of a pavement maintenance strategy. formed during an emergency situation, such as filling in a Pavement management--A process that assists the custo- large pothole or removing foreign object debris, for both dians of pavement networks in finding optimum strategies old and new pavements. for providing and maintaining pavements in a serviceable Life-cycle cost analysis--An economic analysis procedure condition over a period of time. used to compare alternative pavement structures or pave- Pavement Management System--An application of pave- ment preservation strategies and treatments over an extended ment management principles that encompasses a wide
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42 spectrum of activities including periodic evaluation of future deterioration, and maintains or improves the func- pavement condition, planning and programming of pave- tional condition of the system (without significantly ment preservation activities, pavement design, and construc- increasing the structural capacity)." It typically includes tion. For airport pavements, a pavement management low-cost pavement treatments applied when the pavement system is also called an airport pavement maintenance sys- is in very good or good condition. Recently, preventive tem. Some airports may operate two complementary sys- maintenance has been defined in broader terms as a pro- tems, one for airfield pavements and one for roads and gram of applying the right pavement preservation treat- parking lots. ment to the right pavement at the right time. The preven- Pavement performance--Pavement condition recorded tive and corrective maintenance treatments are not defined over a period of time. Pavement performance describes by the type of treatment, but by the reason why (or when) how the pavement condition changes over time. the treatment is performed. For example, a microsurfacing Pavement preservation--Also known as airport pavement treatment applied to seal an open asphalt concrete pave- preservation, this is a program of activities designed to ment surface that starts to ravel can be considered a pre- preserve the investment in the nation's airport pavements. ventive maintenance treatment, whereas a microsurfacing Pavement preservation is a sum of all activities undertaken applied to an asphalt concrete pavement surface that is rav- to keep pavements in good repair and to meet the users' eling (or to counteract moderate rutting) is a corrective needs. Pavement preservation includes routine maintenance, maintenance treatment. Consequently, the distinction emergency maintenance, preventive maintenance, correc- between preventive maintenance and corrective mainte- tive maintenance, and rehabilitation. Pavement preservation nance is blurred. treatments include treatments ranging from crack sealing Programming--The process of developing implementation to asphalt overlays and a full-depth slab replacement. The plans (for pavement preservation) and acquiring the means FHWA Pavement Preservation Expert Task Group defined and resources necessary for implementation. pavement preservation as "a program employing a net- Project-level management--Activities at the project level work level, long-term strategy that enhances pavement concern a specific pavement section. After deciding which performance by using an integrated, cost-effective set of sections are selected to receive generic pavement preser- practices that extend pavement life, improve safety and vation treatments at the network level, the project-level meet motorist expectations" (Pavement Preservation decisions result in the selection of project-specific pave- Compendium II 2006). ment preservation treatments, including the selection of Pavement rehabilitation--A strategy undertaken to restore construction materials and procedures for implementation. pavement to its original condition using rehabilitation Project-level activities also include construction and sub- treatments such as pavement overlays and the replacement sequent monitoring of the treatment performance. of failed portland cement concrete slabs. Routine maintenance--Also called operational maintenance, Pavement rehabilitation treatment--Treatments under- this includes activities that do not substantially improve the taken to substantially improve the pavement condition. pavement surface, such as removal of debris representing The boundary between maintenance and rehabilitation foreign object debris, snow and ice control, repainting of treatments is not well defined. A thin overlay may be con- pavement markings, maintenance of in-pavement runway sidered to be either a maintenance or a rehabilitation treat- lights, and removal of rubber deposits. Routine maintenance ment. The same treatment (such as a full-depth slab repair) is not discussed in detail in the Synthesis. may be called a maintenance treatment, if only a very few Temporary maintenance treatment--Treatments designed slabs are repaired, or a rehabilitation treatment, if multiple to hold the pavement surface together until more perma- slabs are repaired. Typically, rehabilitation treatments add nent or substantial rehabilitation takes place. Temporary or replace one or more pavement surface layers. Some maintenance is also called holding maintenance or stop- agencies also distinguish between minor rehabilitation and gap maintenance. Temporary maintenance treatments may major rehabilitation. Pavements may receive several reha- be necessitated by the timing of future rehabilitation or bilitation treatments (or undergo several rehabilitation reconstruction activities or by a lack of funds. cycles) before they are reconstructed. The right treatment to the right pavement at the right Planning--A process used to identify pavement preservation time--The application of the right treatment to the right needs. Planning includes elements of inventory, condition pavement at the right time is the essence of a cost-effective evaluation, identification of needs, and prioritization. pavement preservation program. There is the ever-present Preventive maintenance--The definition of the preventive need to implement the right treatment at the right time. All maintenance has evolved. Originally, preventive mainte- candidate pavement preservation treatments compete for nance was defined in 1997 by the AASHTO Standing the same pavement preservation budget, with the "winner" Committee on Highways as ". . . a planned strategy of representing the best cost-effective method of providing cost-effective treatments to an existing roadway system pavement infrastructure. The winner may be a single treat- and its appurtenances that preserves the system, retards ment or a combination of treatments.