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6 Combining Maintenance and Rehabilitation METHODOLOGY This synthesis is concerned with both pavement maintenance The synthesis is based on information obtained by an extensive and rehabilitation treatments, because these treatments overlap literature review, a targeted survey of airport pavement main- and are an integral part of a pavement preservation program. tenance professionals, follow-up telephone interviews, and Guidelines and manuals on pavement preservation typically interviews and discussions with pavement experts, including combine M&R treatments. For example, FAA Advisory Cir- technical staff representing airports of different sizes located in cular on Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of Air- different regions of the country. port Pavements (2007) describes M&R treatments together using the term "maintenance and repair." MicroPAVER (2003), a predominant pavement management software appli- Literature Review cation, recommends pavement preservation strategies using Airport pavement maintenance technology is documented several M&R treatments. in many publications such as books, guidelines, manuals of Pavement maintenance may also include routine mainte- practice, specifications, circulars, and field performance and nance that does not substantially improve the pavement sur- research reports. The primary information sources included face, such as removal of debris, snow and ice control, repaint- the following: ing of pavement markings, maintenance of in-pavement lights, and removal of rubber deposits. These routine maintenance U.S.DOT--The FAA has issued several applicable activities are not included in the synthesis. advisory circulars referenced previously. The FHWA and its Office of Asset Management has produced sev- eral useful publications, notably the Pavement Preser- Role of Preventive Maintenance (Preservation) vation Toolbox (2006). U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The Air Force Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent premature has issued eight applicable Engineering Technical pavement deterioration or to slow the rate of deterioration. It is Letters that provide practical guidance for M&R of accomplished when the treatment is most effective, typically airfield pavements; for example, Maintenance and when the pavement is fairly new. Preventive maintenance may Repair of Rigid Airfield Pavement Surfaces, Joints, include, for example, crack sealing or machine patching of and Cracks (2004). The DOD also issues Unified AC pavements, or resealing of PCC pavements. Preventive Facilities Criteria (UFC) publications. The UFC series maintenance is an integral part of a pavement preservation contains more than a dozen relevant reports and tech- program--of applying the right treatment to the right pave- nical manuals; for example, Pavement Maintenance ment at the right time. Management (2004). Reports produced by the Strategic Highway Research Preventive maintenance has a special standing in the area Program (SHRP), such as Asphalt Pavement Repair of pavement preservation for several reasons: Manuals of Practice (1993) and Concrete Pavement Repair Manuals of Practice (1993), and reports pro- Preventive maintenance embodies the age-old experi- duced by SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance ence that a stitch in time saves nine. Program, such as Comparison of Rehabilitation Strate- The term preventive maintenance, and the concept of gies for AC Pavements (2000). preventive maintenance, have become widely accepted and are well-liked by many practitioners. National and international industry associations such as The successful application of preventive maintenance International Slurry Surfacing Association, National programs depends on the timeliness of the application Asphalt Paving Association, American Concrete Pave- that includes: ment Association, and The Asphalt Institute. Detailed pavement surveys that can pinpoint when Technical associations and foundations such as TRB, the treatment produces best results. For example, American Society of Civil Engineers, Association of routing and sealing of longitudinal and transverse Asphalt Paving Technologists, Foundation for Pavement cracks in AC pavements produces favorable results Preservation, National Centre for Pavement Preserva- after the cracks are well-defined, but before single tion, Airfield Asphalt Technical Program, and Innovative cracks develop into multiple cracks. Pavement Research Foundation. Dedicated funding so that the treatment can be car- State sources. Several state transportation agencies ried out at the right time without funding delays. developed comprehensive pavement maintenance guides, notably California (2008), Michigan (1999), Minnesota Consequently, the emphasis on preventive maintenance high- (2001), and Ohio (2001). lights the need for timely pavement preservation actions and contributes to judicious monitoring of pavement condition This synthesis contains only a small selection from the avail- and to the establishment of dedicated maintenance budgets. able information, with the objective to provide an overview