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7 of common airport pavement maintenance practices and their Unlike the previous survey, the synthesis survey did not tar- current application. get state aviation agencies, but individual pavement mainte- nance professionals representing individual airports or small Many information sources, such as pavement management groups of airports serving one small geographical area. guides, specifications, manuals, and field performance reports, used for the preparation of the synthesis, were written for road- The survey of airport pavement maintenance practitioners way pavements. There are differences between airfield and road- representing individual airports was the main tool for gather- way pavements. Airfield pavements are subjected to a greater ing information on current maintenance practices. The survey range of wheel loads, and wheel load applications are relatively questionnaire is included in Appendix A. Key survey results infrequent and more spatially distributed (less channelized) as are presented in subsequent chapters of this synthesis, with compared with roadway pavements. However, both airfield and additional results presented in Appendix B. roadway pavements are built and maintained using the same con- struction technology (materials, construction equipment, and The survey and subsequent interviews focused on the fol- construction methods), are supported by similar subgrade soils, lowing topics: and are exposed to a similar environment. There are also differences between pavement management Use of an APMS and experience with its operation. The procedures used for airport pavement networks and roadway topics included the age of the APMS, type of software pavement networks. These differences are caused primarily used, and the involvement of consultants in the opera- by the differences in the size of airport and roadway networks. tion of the APMS. The large size of roadway networks, particularly networks Evaluation of pavement condition, including periodic managed by state transportation agencies, leads to the devel- evaluation of pavement surface distresses, roughness, opment of customized pavement management software and friction, and pavement surface deflections. pavement management procedures. For example, the cus- Procedures used to select best pavement rehabilitation tomized software may incorporate an interface with other cor- treatments. porate databases and management systems, and include a Use of preventive maintenance, including the existence customized approach to generating project priorities. Large of a dedicated budget for preventive maintenance. roadway networks are also built on a variety of subgrades and Sources of funding and procedures used to obtain fund- in different environmental zones, necessitating more sophis- ing for pavement preservation activities. ticated prediction of pavement performance and the selection Use and performance of common pavement M&R treat- of M&R treatments. Nevertheless, the management of both ments, including new and innovative pavement preser- airport and roadway networks is based on the same manage- vation treatments. ment principles, and uses similar management procedures and frequently the same pavement management software. The survey questionnaire was sent to 62 airports in 34 states to obtain information on current practices in airport pavement There is also a degree of similarity in the mechanism for maintenance and the application of pavement management funding of pavement preservation for roadway pavements and systems (PMSs) to track pavement performance and aid in for airport pavements by external agencies, and in the conse- planning and budgeting. Survey respondents were selected to quent requirement to justify funding requests. Airfield pave- represent different geographic and climatic regions, airports of ment preservation is primarily funded by the FAA with some different sizes, and airports with different pavement types. Fig- contribution by the states; roadway pavement preservation, for ure 1 shows the locations of the airports that responded to the Interstate and primary highways, receives funding from the survey. FHWA. Both federal funding agencies require recipients to report periodically on the condition and utilization of pave- ment networks receiving funding. However, unlike airfield In total, 50 completed surveys were received, representing pavements, many roadway pavements are primarily funded by approximately an 80% response rate. Figure 2 shows the aver- their owner: the state, county, or a municipality. age daily aircraft operations for the airports included in the survey, and indicates that the responses were representative of airports of all sizes. The average number of daily aircraft Survey of Pavement Maintenance Professionals operations ranged from one to about three thousand and was obtained from AirNav.com. The first systematic assessment of airport pavement manage- ment practices in the United States was carried out by Broten and Wade (2004) in 2003, and included a survey of all 50 state REPORT ORGANIZATION aviation agencies. The survey focused on how the state avia- tion agencies were using their APMSs. The survey docu- The next seven chapters are arranged in the technological mented widespread use of APMSs and the positive impact the order of developing, operating, and sustaining an APMS, as APMS had on the overall condition of airport pavements. shown in Figure 3. The names of the seven technological

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8 FIGURE 1 Locations of airports that responded to the survey. steps given in Figure 3 are also the titles of the next seven 1. Design of APMS chapters (chapters two through eight). Chapter nine contains Needs of the users Expected results conclusions and suggestions for further research. The report also includes References and a Glossary of Terms. 2. Pavement inventory & evaluation Inventory and database Pavement evaluation Network Level: Appendix A presents the survey questionnaire and the Performance prediction Selecting survey results that are not included in the body of the report, the right and Appendix B presents a Catalog of Airport Pavement 3. Technology of pavement section at the right preservation treatments Preservation Treatments. time 4. Identification of needs Levels of service Number of average daily Preventive Other pavement 4000 maintenance aircraft operations preservation needs 3000 2000 5. Prioritization, planning and budgeting 1000 0 6. Project design and implementation 0 20 40 60 Project Level: Sequential airport number Designing and 7. Operation, sustainability implementing and enhancement the right treatment FIGURE 2 Number of average daily aircraft operations for airports included in the survey. FIGURE 3 Main components of an APMS.