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9 CHAPTER TWO DESIGN OF AIRPORT PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS This chapter describes the main features of an APMS and its Synthesis survey results indicated that 60% of all airports use by airport agencies. It also describes the potential bene- operate an APMS, 23% of airports are developing an APMS, fits of the APMS, and basic steps necessary for the success- and that about 17% of airports do not have an APMS. Several ful design of an APMS. More than 80% of airports that airports that are developing or do not have an APMS reported responded to the survey reported that they have a functional that they already carry out periodic pavement condition surveys APMS or are in the process of developing one. The primary or that periodic pavement condition surveys are carried out technical resource for this chapter is the FAA AC 150/5380- by their state aviation agency. Pavement condition surveys are 7A, Advisory Circular on Airport Pavement Management an important component of an APMS. Program. Of those airports that responded to the survey, the average age of the APMS being used is approximately 9 years. For AIRPORT PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS comparison, Broten and Wade (2004) reported that the aver- An APMS includes all activities connected with pavement age age of the APMS used by state aviation agencies was infrastructure, including the initial pavement design and 10.7 years. The distribution of the age of APMSs is shown in construction, and the subsequent pavement maintenance and Figure 4. Considering the usage of the APMS and their age, rehabilitation activities. The APMS is part of airport asset airport pavement management technology can be considered management that includes the management of all core airport to be mature. assets including pavements, buildings, and guidance systems. Approximately 30% of the airport authorities who already The role of an APMS is to support technical, engineering, have a functional APMS characterized their system as excel- and management activities of airport personnel responsible lent and essential, and about 27% characterized their APMS for providing pavement infrastructure for safe and efficient as functional, but in need of improvement (Figure 5). Approx- operation of aircraft. The pavement management process imately 34% of the agencies characterized their APMS as provides systematic and objective procedures for maintain- accepted and used. None of the agencies reported that their ing the inventory of pavement infrastructure, monitoring APMS is not useful. pavement performance, planning and budgeting of pavement preservation activities, and evaluating the cost-effectiveness MANAGEMENT AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS of past pavement preservation actions. The main components of an APMS, grouped into seven main activities, are shown An APMS design includes the establishment of its manage- in Figure 3 in chapter one. ment and technical aspects. Management aspects include deci- sions regarding the overall system operation (e.g., in-house or Current Use of Airport Pavement using outside staff or consultants), securing the budget for Management Systems the operation of the system, appointing staff, and establish- ing reporting relationships between the APMS staff and other The 2003 survey of state aviation agencies indicated that 84% airport agency staff. The successful operation of an APMS of the state agencies used a PMS, and that agencies using an requires that it be well-integrated into the decision-making APMS reported improvements in pavement condition over process of the agency and that it be supported by the airport time (Broten and Wade 2004). The widespread use of APMSs management. by state aviation agencies was attributed partially, in the Transportation Research Circular E-C127: Implementation Technical aspects are concerned with the establishment of of an Airport Pavement Management System (Tighe and Cov- a database for the storage and retrieval of pavement-related alt 2008), to the passage of Public Law 103-305 in 1994. This data, selecting APMS software, choosing the methodology law requires a public airport to implement an effective airport for pavement condition evaluation, establishing procedures pavement maintenance management system to be eligible for for estimating pavement deterioration, and selecting the most federal funding for pavement preservation. cost-effective M&R treatments.

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10 Percent of respondents 60 Computerized database--An APMS promotes the development of a computerized database that facilitates the organization and storage of all pavement-related 40 data (such as pavement structural and condition data) in one place and with easy retrieval. 20 Objective monitoring of pavement condition--The operation of an APMS requires periodic, systematic, 0 and objective monitoring of pavement conditions. This <2 years 35 years 510 years 10+ years leads to the objective identification of pavement preser- Age of Pavement Management System vation needs and enables funding agencies to allocate M&R funds to different airports based on reliable data. FIGURE 4 Age distribution of airport pavement Establishment of pavement deterioration rates--The management systems. deterioration rates are used to estimate when maintenance and rehabilitation treatment will be needed. They can be Pavement Management on the Network also used to determine the service lives of specific M&R and Project Levels treatments and to identify pavement sections and pave- Brief definitions of the network and project pavement man- ment treatments that are deteriorating at abnormally high agement are provided in the Glossary of Terms. The division rates. The life spans, together with costs, are used to cal- of APMS activities between the network and project levels is culate cost-effectiveness of pavement M&R treatments. also shown in Figure 2 (see chapter one). For smaller airports, Planning and budgeting--An APMS allows the user consisting of only one or two runways and a few taxiways and to logically select, or even optimize, the list of pavement aprons, the network-level pavement management may include M&R treatments for a given budget. only a handful of pavement sections, whereas large airports Obtaining funding--An APMS facilitates the system- may have hundreds of sections. Consequently, network-level atic identification and documentation of pavement preser- management needs and procedures depend on airport size. vation needs. The APMS is a prerequisite for obtaining Pavement preservation at large airports typically uses special- federal and/or state funding for M&R of airport pave- ized pavement management software. ments, and aids in the justification of M&R funding from upper management. Project-level management activities, which concern the Flexibility of operation--An APMS fosters the need design and construction of M&R treatments for a specific pave- for thorough documentation of the pavement manage- ment section, tend to be similar for all airports. The main differ- ment process. The existence of a documented pavement ence is in the scale and importance of specific M&R projects. management process enables agencies to adjust to For large M&R projects, or for projects with high demand changes, particularly to changes concerning agency per- on the reliability of pavement design, advanced engineering sonnel and consultants operating the system or provid- design and quality control procedures are typically used to ing system support. minimize costs and achieve product quality and reliability. Figure 6 shows how airports use different features of an APMS. For example, approximately 90% of airports use Benefits and Costs of an Airport Pavement their APMS system to track the pavement condition and pre- Management System pare budgets. Only about 45% of respondents use the system to determine the performance of past M&R treatments. APMS literature confirms that considerable benefits can be obtained by agencies through the following capabilities of 100 the APMS: Percent of respondents 75 40 Percent of respondents 50 30 25 20 0 10 pavement performance Evaluate past budgets funding Prepare condition Obtain treatments Track Predict future 0 Excellent and Benefits System is Functional but essential outweigh costs accepted and needs used improvement Usage of APMS features FIGURE 5 Experience with airport pavement management FIGURE 6 Use of the features and results provided by systems. airport pavement management systems.

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11 The costs associated with APMS include the initial costs Identify potential users of the system and determine to develop the system, establish a pavement management their needs. database, and train the personnel. Subsequent ongoing costs of Decide who will develop and operate the system (inter- operating the system include periodic pavement condition nal staff, consultant, or a combination of the two). surveys, system maintenance, and modifications and improve- Select APMS software. ments to the system. Develop a database including sectioning of the network and initial pavement condition evaluation. Customize software to reflect local input values such as Initial Design of Airport Pavement Management Systems pavement deterioration rates, M&R policies, typical unit costs of M&R treatments, and agency-specific prefer- The initial design of an APMS is important for ensuring the ences and priorities concerning the selection of M&R future use and sustainability of the APMS operation. A com- treatments. prehensive summary of design activities for successful imple- Customize software to incorporate agency preferences mentation and operation of an APMS is provided in Trans- regarding data analysis and reporting, such as network portation Research Circular E-C127 (Tighe and Covalt 2008). condition analysis and the incorporation of geographic Briefly, the design and implementation of an APMS includes information systems (GIS). the following activities: Provide initial and ongoing staff training. Construct a follow-up plan to ensure that data are updated Obtain a commitment to establish and operate an (e.g., periodic pavement condition evaluation and updating APMS and appropriate funding to do so from airport the database to record new M&R activities) and that the management. software keeps pace with new developments.