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Introduction This Guide is the result of a Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP) project managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies. As the project charter stated: "few efforts have been made at the national, state, or regional levels to identify capable response teams, match their capabilities with potential emergencies involving different types of hazardous materials (hazmat), and assess how quickly resources can be brought to bear in an emergency. Likewise, comprehensive guidance on assessing state, regional, or local hazmat emergency response needs, in order to achieve the appropriate level of coverage at the regional or local level, has not been provided." This Guide is designed to assist emergency response planning organizations at all jurisdic- tional levels in assessing their needs for hazmat emergency response, in assessing their capabili- ties to respond, and in identifying and addressing any significant shortfalls in coverage. The approach is intended to be scalable and to promote implementation and integration from the local level through regional, state, and national levels. This document may be most useful for local jurisdictions that have limited resources and expertise in hazmat emergency response plan- ning. The appropriate level of effort for implementation can be tailored to the specific types of community or jurisdiction conducting the response planning. Each response concept is formu- lated based upon the specific operational environment(s) in which the intended audience will be expected to operate. This Guide recognizes these legal and procedural differences and does not attempt to force each of these distinct concepts into a single framework. Each concept will be recognized and assessed separately, while acknowledging overarching and unifying concepts such as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS), which are common across all preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. In general, this Guide recognizes already established standards, guidelines, regulations, and laws, to enable the Guide to remain current as these underlying components are updated over time. Hazmat in transit, stored, manufactured, or used at fixed facilities can create adverse conse- quences to the population, to the environment, and even to critical infrastructure in the event of an accidental or intentional release. Environmental, safety, and health (ESH) regulations at the fed- eral level mandate certain planning and preparedness activities, in particular the Emergency Plan- ning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA 1986; SARA 1986), which specifies requirements for State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs) and their designated Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs). When planning for hazmat emergency response, LEPCs as well as local jurisdictions and orga- nizations consider the full range of hazmat that may be encountered. Permanent and temporary production and storage facilities are identified in the planning process, as are other venues repre- senting potential incident scenes, such as major land (vehicle, rail, and pipeline) and maritime transportation corridors. 1

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2 A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases The scope of materials addressed by this Guide is the materials that are transported commer- cially under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S.DOT) Hazmat Regula- tions (HMRs) as found in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This includes the storage of materials incidental to transportation (including at facilities at both the origin and des- tination), as well as along any transportation corridors. This Guide utilizes the nine hazard classes identified within these regulations whenever possible to delineate specific hazards or associated risks. The HMRs include class designations and identification numbers for various chemical, biolog- ical, and radiological agents that have conventional warfare applications or that have certain char- acteristics that may be favorable for utilization by terrorists or criminals during an intentional act. However, these hazard classes are inherently designed from a safety perspective to support the legal and regulated storage and/or transportation of hazmat between origin and destination for lawful use by a private citizen, established company, or governmental agency or department. Three major hazmat response concepts are currently in use within the United States, as found in the following sources: Hazmat Response within the Public Safety community as represented by National Fire Pro- tection Association (NFPA) Standard 472 (2008); Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) codified in 29 CFR 1910.120Q; and Environmental Oil and Hazardous Substance (OHS) response codified in 40 CFR 300 and related parts, based largely upon the HAZWOPER standard in 29 CFR.