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12 A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases As mentioned above, the capabilities of any resource are based upon how that resource is organized, trained, certified, equipped, exercised, evaluated, and sustained. The approach in this Guide is to assess capabilities against existing standards whenever possible. An analysis of existing resource typing initiatives by DHS/FEMA showed that: Only some elements of public safety-based hazmat response had accepted, consensus-based definitions; and These definitions applied to only high levels of capability and capacity that were above the established minimum standards in NFPA Standard 472 (2008 Edition) and 29 CFR 1910.120Q. The tier concept was used to define emergency response capabilities to ensure that all levels of response were addressed consistently. This approach is consistent with the FEMA typed resource definitions for the national level, but includes other elements such as casualty decontamination and the baseline level of response capability discussed earlier. In addition, the term tier is not used in other contexts to denote emergency response capability. However, class and/or level are used in other contexts. For example, jurisdictional classes and levels are used to classify the capabilities of jurisdictions and technical, operational, and supervisory levels are used for assessing emergency response performance. This Guide generally classifies environmental and occupational/industrial response teams in the baseline tier, but these teams should be assigned to a higher tier if they meet the corresponding specifications. The baseline tier would also be appropriate for traditional public safety hazmat response teams without technician-level training, certification, and supporting equipment. Appendix D contains more information on the development of the capability assessment process. For the purposes of this Guide, a fundamental assumption is that your jurisdiction has adopted the NIMS to facilitate the common exchange of information, services, and resources across juris- dictional boundaries. This NIMS component includes the standard planning and preparedness concepts in the Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 (FEMA 2009) as well as the adoption of the ICS, the Unified Command System (UCS), and the Multi-Agency Coordination System (MACS). This Guide recognizes that adoption of NIMS is not consistent across federal, state, tribal, and local governments, especially not at the local level, where federal funding streams, which carry with them the mandate for NIMS compliance, may not always drive the recommended changes in the specified time period. Defining Emergency Response Capability Tiers Table 2 identifies requirements for the emergency response capability tiers organized by different types of testing and response equipment, training, and sustainability. Table 2. Hazmat response team capability tiers. Capability1 Tier Baseline 1 2 3 4 FEMA Resource Type (Equivalent) N/A N/A III II I 2 Highest Team Certification Ops Ops/ Tech Tech Tech (Operations or Technician) Tech Field Testing3 Presumptive Identification Chemical X X X X Presumptive Identification Radiological X X X X Presumptive Identification Biological X X 6 Presumptive Identification Spec. Chemicals O

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Assessing Emergency Response Capability 13 Table 2. (Continued). Capability1 Tier Baseline 1 2 3 4 FEMA Resource Type (Equivalent) N/A N/A III II I 3 Air Monitoring Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen X X X X X Atmospheric Monitoring Explosive Gas X X X X X Atmospheric Monitoring CO X X X X X Atmospheric Monitoring H2S X X X X X 7 Atmospheric Monitoring Flammable Diff. X X X Atmospheric Monitoring Identify TIC8 X X Atmospheric Monitoring Identify Conc.9 X 3 Sampling Sampling Solid X X X X Sampling Liquid O X X Sampling Air/Vapor O O X 3 Radiation Monitoring Survey Gamma X X X X Survey Gamma & Beta X X Survey Gamma, Beta, & Alpha X 10 Personal Dosimeters X X X 3 Protective Ensembles Liquid Splash-Protective CPC11 X X X X X 12 Vapor-Protective CPC X X 13 Flash Fire Vapor-Protective CPC X 14 Level C PPE X X X X X Level B PPE14 X X X Level A PPE14 X X X 3 Technical Reference Printed & Electronic X X X X X Dispersion Modeling with Map Overlays X X X 3 Special Capabilities Specialized Equipment Based upon Local Risk X X X Heat Sensing Capability X X Light Amplification Capability X X Digital Imaging Documentation Capability X Intervention3 Dike, Dam, & Absorption Capability X X X X X Liquid Leak Intervention X X Neutralize, Plug, & Patch Capability X X Vapor Leak Intervention X X 15 Advanced Intervention Capabilities X (continued on next page)

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14 A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases Table 2. (Continued). Capability1 Tier Baseline 1 2 3 4 FEMA Resource Type (Equivalent) N/A N/A III II I 3 Decontamination Team Decontamination Known X X X X X Team Decontamination Known & Unknown X X Team Decontamination Advanced X Casualty Decontamination (100 patients/hr) X X X Casualty Decontamination (250 patients/hr) X X Casualty Decontamination (500+ patients/hr) X Communications3 In-Suit, Wireless Voice X X X X X Wireless Data X X Secure Wireless Voice X 4 Staffing Hazmat Incident Commander X X X X X Hazmat Safety Officer X X X X X No Technician-level Capability X Minimum of 2 out, 2 in, 2 to Decon X X X X More than 6 Hazmat Technicians X X X 3 Training Awareness Level (NFPA 472) X X X X X Operations Level (NFPA 472) X X X X X Technician Level (NFPA 472) X X X X Specialist Level (NFPA 472) Incident Commander (NFPA 472) X X X X X Sustainability5 No Technician-level Entries X Less than 3 Entries within 24-Hour Period X 3 Entries within 24-Hour Period X 5 Entries within 24-Hour Period16 X 16 10 Entries within 24-Hour Period X 17 Casualty Decon for 6-Hour Period X X Casualty Decon for 12-Hour Period17 X X 17 Casualty Decon for 12+-Hour Period X Key X Required minimum capability O Optional capability Notes 1 Capability Value The value to insert into the risk equation for capability. The higher the value, the greater the capability mitigates the risk. 2 Certification Based upon 29 CFR 1910.120Q or NFPA Standard 472 (2008 Edition) as determined by jurisdiction. 3 Metric From FEMA (2005). Limitations include (1) focused solely on Hazmat Entry Team versus complete Hazmat Response Capability required to manage casualties as well as conduct testing, monitoring, and sampling and (2) focused on National-level resources exceeding minimum standards (hence the addition of Baseline and Tier 1 capability sets).