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CHAPTER 6 The Mitigating Effects of Emergency Response In the previous chapter, you determined the potential consequences for each scenario that you identified as possible within your jurisdiction. Capable and timely emergency response can help mitigate those consequences--by reducing the amount of product released, changing the nature of the release, or properly protecting the population and environment in the vicinity of the incident before they experience the full effects. In this chapter, you can apply the effects of response time to an incident and the capability of emergency responders in determining potential consequences. Determining the Response Capability Tier Determining the response capability tier for each incident scenario uses the information developed in Chapter 3 and the release consequence values developed in Chapter 5, based on the hazardous materials portfolio developed in Chapter 4. Table 16 is the key table used to determine the recommended response capability tier for each release scenario associated with the hazardous materials portfolio. The Jurisdictional Class column to use in Table 16 was specified in Chapter 3, Step 5. For each release scenario, the CARVER scale row to use was specified in Chapter 5, Step 14. The cell that is at the intersection of the CARVER row and Jurisdiction Class column is the recommended response capability tier for that scenario. These tier assignments are general estimates and generally apply to larger incidents with the potential to generate significant consequences. You can modify the Tier Response Level based on local circumstances. For example, smaller jurisdictions with extremely high potential consequences will want to increase the emergency response capability beyond that listed. Step 15 Record the desired Response Capability Tier for each scenario in your hazardous materials portfolio based on the potential consequences. Emergency Response Capability Factor The emergency response capability term is used to represent the mitigation effects of the available response teams to address specific incident scenarios. Essentially, this is the second gap analysis regarding emergency response capabilities. The first gap analysis considered the tier level capability of the team being assessed when compared with the Tier Response Level needed, based on the selected Jurisdictional Class in Step 6. This second gap analysis is based on the consequences of the release scenarios that you selected as appropriate for the region or area being analyzed. If the consequences are high, then a higher Tier Response Level is warranted, as shown in Table 16. 33
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34 A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases Table 16. Response capability tiers to offset possible consequences. Potential Jurisdiction Class Consequences Class Five Class Four Class Three Class Two Class One 5 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 4 Tier 4 Tier 4 4 Tier 2 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 4 3 Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 2 Baseline Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 1 Baseline Baseline Baseline Tier 1 Tier 1 As was pointed out after Step 6, if shortfalls were identified there, they are likely to broaden when the emergency response capability factor is specified. The capabilities of any resource are based upon how that resource is organized, trained, certified, equipped, exercised, evaluated, and sustained. For this Guide, the appropriate level of response for hazmat incidents is organized into five tiers beyond the baseline level of response that would be expected for any U.S. fire department and is consistent with FEMA response team classifications for the more capable levels of response. The appropriate level of response, termed the Response Capability Tier in the previous section, was specified in Step 15. The current response capability for the emergency response teams in the region was initially specified in Step 2. If, after Step 6, you identify a shortfall in capabilities and you choose to increase the response capabilities to eliminate this initial shortfall, then you would use the upgraded Step 2 capabilities at this point. Otherwise, any shortfalls shown here will probably increase the existing gap in capabilities. The difference between the current Tier Response Level the team can mount and the required Response Capability Tier is the basis for assigning the emergency response capability factor using Table 17. Referring back to Equation 2 in Chapter 1, notice that the potential consequences are multiplied by the emergency response capability (ERC) term. Therefore, a higher ERC effectively increases the consequence term and shows the appropriate ERC values for differing abilities to provide the desired response capability for each scenario. The impact on consequences can increase by as much as five times, depending on the difference between the desired and available emergency Response Capability Tiers. Step 16 Record the ERC factor for each scenario in your hazardous materials portfolio based on the values in Table 17. If you use the assessment tool, this calculation is performed automatically and no input is required. An example of the calculation sequence associated with Step 16 is shown in Appendix D. Table 17. Assigning values for emergency response capability. Emergency Response Capability Basis for Assigning Value [ERC] Response meets Required/Desired Tier Level Response 1 Response is one Tier Level below the Required/Desired Tier Level Response 3 Response is two or more Tier Levels below the Required/Desired Tier Level 5 Response