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Overview of the Approach 9 Consequence The consequence term is a measure of the potential impacts to the population or environment from a release of hazmat. There are many factors to consider when estimating these impacts. Rather than determine a specific consequence value, this Guide uses a method to assign a relative value for the two different types of consequences: population and environment. These consequences are measured assuming no effective emergency response. This enables the effectiveness of the emergency response to be captured in the response time and emergency response capability terms in the risk equation. For each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio, both population and environmental consequences will be estimated and the maximum of the two estimates will be used in the risk equation. Emergency Response Capability For each hazard, the capability is measured by the ability of the emergency response team to place trained individuals at the scene of the incident with the proper response equipment. The emergency response capability term is used to represent the capabilities of the available response teams to effectively mitigate specific incident scenarios. The capabilities of any resource are based upon how that resource is organized, trained, certified, equipped, exercised, evaluated, and sustained. For this Guide, the appropriate level of response for hazmat incidents is organized into five tiers beyond the baseline level of response that would be expected for any U.S. fire department and is consistent with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) response team classifi- cations for the higher levels of response capability. The appropriate level of response for a particular scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio is initially determined by the potential consequences from that scenario and the type of jurisdiction, recognizing that very rural jurisdictions need not have the same emergency response capabilities as densely populated urban jurisdictions. Response Time The response time factor has three major components. These include the time it takes for the: Incident to be reported; First responders to arrive on the scene and begin managing the incident; and Specialized hazmat emergency response team to arrive on the scene and take over management of the incident. The concept is, if the appropriate response occurs later than desired, it will be less effective and will not reduce consequences as much as if it occurs more quickly. Summary of Risk Metric Evaluation Steps The risk metric equation terms developed in the last five subsections are developed further in the balance of this Guide with a series of steps for performing two functions. In some steps, you specify the performance goals for your assessment region. The goals are based on the population in the assessment region as modified by the types and quantities of hazmat present in the assess- ment region. You define the extent of the region and your performance goals and objectives. In other steps, the terms of the risk equation are evaluated and they are compared to your goals and performance objectives to determine if there are any shortfalls in the emergency response coverage in your region. The individual scenario values for the risk metric are used to prioritize any shortfalls in emergency response coverage.

OCR for page 9
10 A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases Figure 1. Steps to evaluate the risk metric and thereby identify capability shortfalls. As can be seen in Figure 1, the first five steps define the capabilities of the emergency response region being assessed and then establish jurisdictional response objectives for the region. The next four steps, Steps 6 through 9, develop the risk portfolio for the region based on the hazard present. The remaining 11 steps develop successive terms in the risk metric equation. The terms in the risk metric equation that are defined in Chapter 1 are displayed in brackets above the steps where the terms are quantified. In subsequent sections, after the method of quantifying each term in the risk metric equation, the step number and a brief description of the step are presented.