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Defining the System 29 your right-of-way office that is using a GIS and wants to build right-of-way business function- ality behind the geospatial interface. With this case, you can use the 8-55A logical model for ac- tivities that are not associated with GIS or are just passing status attributes directly to an exist- ing GIS to build functionality. For geospatial activities, you can use the model as a reference to program additional functions into the GIS interface as desired. Data Structure Transportation agencies have extensive data and most have migrated to one or more enterprise database systems such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, or IBM Informix to manage these data. When you identify your capabilities, which system to use is probably already determined by your agency, or possibly, your state. As part of the design phase, you will create a data architecture for your system. The architecture should include descriptions of the following: Data in storage Data in motion Data stores Data groups Data items Mappings of those data artifacts to applications, locations Appendix D provides the initial data architecture that evolved from the 8-55A logical model development. Geospatial Capabilities Geospatial capabilities have become available in a multitude of different areas within trans- portation agencies. Historically, GIS has been prevalent in planning offices as represented by where the GIS office often exists in an agency's organization chart. With the rapid changes in technology from desktop to cloud applications and from localized to centralized or distributed data management, GIS has become more accessible to personnel and functions across every aspect of transportation including right-of-way activities. Given the ready availability of on-line spatial visualization tools such as Google Maps and Earth and Microsoft Globe, you already have access to some capabilities. If your agency has a license with one of these providers, you can provide functionality that interfaces with these tools to display your geospatial information on top of their underlying imagery and layers. You should note that these tools do not support more advanced geospatial analyses. If you have access to a GIS such as Esri's ArcGIS, Bentley's Microstation, or Caliper's TransCAD, you will be able to include GIS in your system. However, the one geographic feature that can limit a geospatial system's usefulness--the availability of a statewide parcel, or cadastral dataset-- can be a difficult obstacle to overcome. Some options that you might consider are outlined in the following paragraphs. State GIS Office You can partner with your state GIS office to build your state cadastre layer. This process will probably be time consuming and potentially expensive unless other agencies are also supporting the effort.