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6 Guide for Implementing a Geospatially Enabled Enterprise-wide Information Management System (2) guidelines for use by state transportation agencies to adapt the model to their specific requirements, (3) guidance on how such a system would integrate and interact with other agency systems, (4) information about how this system integrates into the project delivery process, and (5) guidance on how this system would support state transportation agency performance measures and goals. This guidance consisted of refined use case models, domain models with sequence diagrams, collaboration diagrams, user interface models, class models (which capture data input and output), and component models. The guidance specified in this task was included in the implementation plan under Task 6. 4. Test Plan: prepared a test plan to test the validity, usefulness, and robustness of the logical models which were designed to determine (1) how features of the models integrate with existing geospatial systems and (2) how such a system might be implemented in states that do not presently use either geospatially enabled or right-of-way information management systems. 5. Tests: tested the logical models using three case studies. Based on the results of the case study analysis, the logical model was revised as necessary. 6. Implementation Plan: prepared generalized work plans for future implementation of the logical model in a state with (1) no enterprise-level, geospatially enabled right-of-way infor- mation management system, (2) an enterprise-level right-of-way information management system that is not geospatially enabled, and (3) a geospatially enabled system that has no or limited right-of-way components. To assist states with finding the guidance enumerated in Task 3, Table 1 lists the specific guidance objectives and the locations where those objectives are addressed. The resulting logical model, referred to as the 8-55A logical model in the remainder of this guide, is available to state agencies as a possible structure for use in building their own information system and is provided on the attached CD in standard Uniform Modeling Language (UML) format using the software Enterprise Architect developed by Sparx Systems. (Sparx 2007) Moving to a Geospatially Enabled Enterprise-wide Right-of-Way Information Management System Information management systems exist in a continuum of structures and technologies from written records and file cabinets to individual desktop spreadsheets to Internet/intranet-based work environments that seamlessly integrate with agency databases and other systems and tools as represented in Figure 2. Understanding where your agency operates within this continuum will provide the necessary basis for establishing where to start. Table 1. 8-55A Logical Model Objectives Objective Description Location* Establish enterprise-wide standardization for data elements to ensure Appendices 1 interoperability with other agency systems C and D Provide guidelines for use by state transportation agencies to adapt p. 28 and 2 the model to their specific requirements Appendix B Provide guidance on how such a system would integrate and interact 3 Appendix B with other agency systems Provide information about how this system integrates into the project Figure 4 and 4 delivery process Appendix B Provide guidance on how this system would support state 5 p. 14 transportation agency in meeting performance measures and goals *Appendices are available on the accompanying CD-ROM and the NCHRP Report 695 summary web page (www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165239.aspx).
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Introduction 7 Figure 2. Enterprise work environment. At the same time, every transportation agency performs the business of acquiring real property according to its state laws and policies and, for projects including federal funding, federal laws and policies. The corresponding procedures and activities have evolved according to the unique requirements and characteristics of each state. As a result, how a right-of-way office manages its information will determine how it will proceed with the implementation process. Information Management Systems Although right-of-way offices that do not use any type of digital information management are almost nonexistent, many still have aspects that are nondigital such as maintaining hardcopies of documents and drawings, having to physically go to the courthouse to research tax and property records, or sending hardcopy payment requests through the mail. Moving from these more traditional activities to digital information systems requires reeducating staff not only in the technologies but also in the culture of working digitally. Many offices have developed localized information management tools and applications for a specific right-of-way activity. (Hancock 2006b) These activities range from maintaining spread- sheets to record and manage data about one or more activities to running macros in a geographic information system (GIS) that generate excess-property fact sheets for the public about purchase
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8 Guide for Implementing a Geospatially Enabled Enterprise-wide Information Management System opportunities. Migrating or reconfiguring these activities and data into an enterprise system may require linking them to the new system, reprogramming the application as part of the new system, or reentering legacy data into the new system. Several right-of-way offices have implemented systems that are built on corporate-level database systems. These systems have been designed to improve data input, management, and access and have increased efficiency. Early systems were built on mainframe, centralized computers that were difficult to modify and generally did not have desktop access. Over time, these systems have been migrated to more modern enterprise systems, described in the next section, which provide substantial flexibility and improved user access. As you approach implementing a new system or modifying an existing system, two funda- mental approaches are commonly used for developing an enterprise-level information man- agement system. The first approach follows on the previous paragraph and consists primarily of building data entry and management activities on an enterprise database system. This can be viewed as an electronic ledger system with various users entering their information into a series of linked data tables through user interfaces. This information is available to stakehold- ers and users, as specified within the system, either through graphic user interfaces (GUIs) or standard reporting capabilities that are part of the database system. This type of system is often designed using a detailed data architecture based on identifying attributes associated with right- of-way activities. The second approach uses an electronic work environment that assists users in performing their activities and often includes business rules and decision support modules. It is typically developed independent of any database system while providing access to databases and interacting with other systems, and often it includes reengineered business processes to take advantage of available technologies. This type of system is usually designed from business flow diagrams that are then expanded to business process models and corresponding class models that are then used to build the data architecture. Either approach can be designed to include Internet/intranet access, geospatial enablement or linkage to a GIS system, and the ability to seamlessly exchange infor- mation with other systems. The 8-55A logical model is an example of the latter approach while the comprehensive list of attributes provided in NCHRP 8-55 is an example of a first step to the former approach. (Hancock 2006a,b) Databases The term "enterprise database system," as used in this guide, refers to a composite of (1) hardware--one or more servers, (2) a database software package--Oracle, Microsoft's SQL Server, IBM's Informix, or similar--that supports distributed computing and procedure devel- opment in standard .Net, Java or PL/SQL, and relational and object-oriented data management capabilities, and (3) agency data. During the first push to centralize digital data management in the mid-twentieth century, many transportation agencies built databases in mainframe computer systems. These databases typically were not scalable and had limited access, reporting, and search capabilities. Although some were able to migrate to desktop access using front-end applications in a client-server relationship, they were very limited and prescriptive in what could be done. As agencies have upgraded to current enterprise database systems, they have moved data into the new structure using methods that vary from directly importing the old data to new database tables to redesigning the different datasets to take advantage of enhanced capabilities of the enterprise environment. This migration usually depends on available resources and other constraints at the time of initial implementation. When a redesign occurred, porting data from the old system to the new system