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REPORT S2-R26-RR-1 Preservation Approaches for High-Traffic-Volume Roadways Accelerating solutions for highway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, Maryland VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasFort Worth International Airport, Texas Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010) Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, Virginia Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California *Membership as of August 2011.

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The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-R26-RR-1 Preservation Approaches for High-Traffic-Volume Roadways D. PESHKIN, K. L. SMITH, A. WOLTERS, AND J. KRSTULOVICH Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Urbana, Illinois J. MOULTHROP AND C. ALVARADO Fugro Consultants, Inc. Austin, Texas TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Subscriber Categories Highways Maintenance and Preservation Materials Pavements

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The Second Strategic Highway SHRP 2 Report S2-R26-RR-1 Research Program ISBN: 978-0-309-12891-9 America's highway system is critical to meeting the mobility Library of Congress Control Number: 2011939428 and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technology--such as 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science--offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this Copyright Information important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of sig- Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for ob- nificant transportation problems, however, requires concen- taining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright trated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of re- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to search and technology, and is fundamentally different from imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research pro- or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment grams that have been the mainstay of the highway research in- of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the ma- dustry for half a century. terial, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: and publication format. Report numbers ending in "w" are published as web documents only. Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act Notice for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behav- by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of ior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid the National Research Council. design and construction methods that cause minimal disrup- The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of tions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce conges- the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program tion through incident reduction, management, response, and sponsors. mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, envi- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National ronmental, and community needs in the planning and designing Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' of new transportation capacity. names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memo- randum of understanding among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Fed- eral Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Acad- emy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The SHRP 2 Reports program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of re- Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: search contractors; independent research project oversight; and www.TRB.org/bookstore dissemination of research results. Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Eduardo Cusicanqui, Finance Officer Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional James Hedlund, Special Consultant, Safety Coordination Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Onno Tool, Visiting Professional Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Associ- ation of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by James W. Bryant, Jr., Senior Program Officer for SHRP 2 Renewal. The research reported on herein was performed by Applied Pavement Technology (APTech), Inc. David Peshkin, Vice President of APTech, was the principal investigator. He was supported in the research by the fol- lowing APTech engineers: James Krstulovich, Kelly Smith, Kurt Smith, Angela Wolters, and Katie Zimmer- man. Also providing support were Jim Moulthrop and Cesar Alvarado of Fugro Consultants, Inc., and consultants Gerry Eller (formerly Executive Director of the Foundation for Pavement Preservation), Dr. R. Gary Hicks (Technical Director of the California Pavement Preservation Center), and Dean Testa (formerly Chief Construction Engineer with the Kansas Department of Transportation). The authors gratefully acknowledge those individuals from state departments of transportation, industry organizations, and academia who participated in the project survey and provided important information and documentation for this project. The time and effort that they contributed were instrumental in the successful completion of this project.

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F O R E W O R D James W. Bryant, Jr., PhD, PE, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer, Renewal This research report documents the state of the practice of preservation treatment on asphalt and concrete pavements. Although the focus of the project was on treatments suitable for application on high-volume roadways, this report also discusses current practices for low- volume roadways. The information presented is derived from a detailed survey of trans- portation agencies and a review of national and international literature. In addition, the report provides a general framework for how best practices are identified. Finally, general guidelines were developed on the application of preservation treatments on high-volume roadways. Presented as a separate document, Guidelines for the Preservation of High-Traffic- Volume Roadways considers traffic volume, pavement condition, work-zone requirements, environmental conditions, and expected performance. For several years, pavement preservation has been an important strategy to extend the life of roadways. As transportation agencies grapple with decreased capital budgets, pavement preservation will continue to be an important strategy. Relatively small investments for preservation activities, if properly timed and applied, can significantly increase infrastruc- ture life. Several transportation agencies apply preservation strategies on lower-volume roadways; however, the application of these strategies on high-volume roadways has lagged behind. The application of preservation strategies to high-traffic-volume roadways presents a complicated set of challenges. Many of the products and approaches that have been accepted for use on lower-traffic-volume roadways have not been accepted for use on high-traffic- volume roadways. Often, the use of a particular product or application has too great an impact on traffic or has not been successfully applied under high-traffic conditions. The pur- pose of this report is to provide guidance to more effectively match pavement condition and related considerations with suitable treatments for high-traffic-volume roadways.

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C O N T E N T S xi List of Abbreviations 1 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Findings 5 Implementation of Guidelines 5 Conclusions 5 Recommendations 6 C H A P T E R 1 Introduction 6 Background and Problem Statement 7 Research Objectives 7 Research Scope and Approach 7 Overview of Report 9 C H A P T E R 2 Information Gathering and Review 9 Information Gathering 10 Analysis and Summary of Collected Information 33 C H A P T E R 3 Development of Preservation Guidelines for High-Traffic-Volume Roadways 33 Preliminary Analysis of Treatment Feasibility: Consideration of Existing Pavement Conditions 42 Final Analysis of Treatment Feasibility: Consideration of Project Needs and Constraints 71 Selection of the Preferred Preservation Treatment 79 C H A P T E R 4 Implementation of Preservation Guidelines 79 Barriers to Implementation 80 Keys to Implementation 82 C H A P T E R 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 82 Conclusions 84 Recommendations 85 References 88 Glossary 93 Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography 106 Appendix B. Preservation Questionnaire Survey Form 126 Appendix C. Summary of Preservation Questionnaire Responses 174 Appendix D. Other Pavement Preservation Treatments Online version of this report: www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165280.aspx.

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L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S AADT average annual daily traffic AADTT average annual daily truck traffic AAPT Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists AAR alkali-aggregate reaction AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AC asphalt concrete ACPA American Concrete Pavement Association ADT average daily traffic AI Asphalt Institute AP analysis period ARRA Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association ARRB Australian Road Research Board ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASR alkali-silica reaction ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BCR benefit-cost ratio B/C benefit-to-cost CFLHD Central Federal Lands Highway Division CIR cold in-place recycling CP Tech Center National Concrete Pavement Technology Center CPPC California Pavement Preservation Center DBR dowel bar retrofit DOT department of transportation EAC equivalent annual cost ESAL equivalent single-axle load FHWA Federal Highway Administration FI freezing index FP2 Foundation for Pavement Preservation FWD falling weight deflectometer HIR hot in-place recycling HMA hot-mix asphalt HMAOL hot-mix asphalt overlay HS high severity IC initial construction IGGA International Grooving and Grinding Association IPRF Innovative Pavement Research Foundation IRF International Road Federation IRI international roughness index ISO International Organization for Standardization ISSA International Slurry Surfacing Association LCCA life-cycle cost analysis xi

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xii LCPC Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses (French public works research laboratory) LS low severity LTPP long-term pavement performance LTR load transfer restoration M&R maintenance and rehabilitation MOT ministry of transportation MS medium severity NACE National Association of County Engineers NAPA National Asphalt Pavement Association NCAT National Center for Asphalt Technology NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCPP National Center for Pavement Preservation NHI National Highway Institute NHS National Highway System NPV net present value NTIS National Technical Information Service NTL National Transportation Library OGFC open-graded friction course PCA Portland Cement Association PCC portland cement concrete PCCOL portland cement concrete overlay PCI pavement condition index PCR pavement condition rating PIARC World Road Association (formerly Permanent International Association of Road Congresses) PM preventive maintenance PMAC polymer-modified asphalt concrete PMS pavement management system PSI present serviceability index PSR present serviceability rating PT preservation treatment QC/QA quality control/quality assurance RSL remaining service life SHA state highway agency SMA stone matrix asphalt SPS Specific Pavement Study SV salvage value TAC Transportation Association of Canada TI traffic index tpd trucks per day UTW ultra-thin whitetopping UV ultraviolet VOC vehicle operating cost vpd vehicles per day