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80 way. In most cases, the initial proving grounds for preser- analysis. Furthermore, the inclusion of user costs in either vation activities have been on lower-volume roadways analysis approach requires special judgment in weighing where, if a premature failure occurred, the consequences them against the computed agency costs. beyond the monetary aspects were not tremendously seri- ous. Application of preservation treatments on higher- Keys to Implementation volume roads yields the same kinds of uncertainties to inexperienced agencies as it did to those agencies that long Although there are several potential barriers to implementa- ago started using preservation techniques on lower-volume tion of the preservation guidelines, there are also actions that roads. However, because the activities will now be per- can be taken to either eliminate the barrier altogether or lessen formed on higher-type facilities, the consequences of pre- its impact on implementation. Depending on the issue, these mature failure will be much more serious. Not only will actions or measures may either need to take place at specific a failure be visible to a much higher percentage of the trav- times in the implementation process or throughout the entire eling public (who will then complain about the waste of process. taxpayer funds), but the traveling public will be affected by the delays and congestion associated with fixing the Issue 1: Resistance to Allowing the Use failure. Thus, agencies will perceive a much greater risk of Lower-Volume Preservation Treatments of implementing preservation activities on high-traffic- on Higher-Volume Roads volume roads. Heightened battles for dedicated funding of preservation activ- Overcoming skepticism and doubt about the benefits and ities. Although several states have made significant progress importance of pavement preservation is an ongoing and long- over the years in establishing dedicated funding for preserva- term issue that must rely on documented evidence and veri- tion activities, the overwhelming amount of transportation fied proof. Overcoming skepticism about the durability and infrastructure money is earmarked for capital improvement performance of preservation treatments applied to high- projects. The main difficulty lies in the agency's reluctance to volume roads requires the same tactic, and it begins with treat good pavements while a backlog of significantly deteri- (a) showing the successes of treatments applied in the past orated pavements exists (Zimmerman and Peshkin 2006). If within the state or in a neighboring state having similar con- the preservation program is expanded to include more high- ditions and (b) pressing for research studies that will provide traffic-volume applications, an even greater reluctance may opportunities for demonstrating preservation treatment be expected because the projects will be on roads with higher effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. risk and greater scrutiny. Lack of experienced individuals to champion and direct the Issue 2: Ability to Convince the Traveling development of a high-traffic-volume roadway preservation Public of the Benefits and Importance program. As has been the case with the development of sev- of Preserving High-Traffic-Volume Roads eral current preservation programs, the lack of experienced pavement management, maintenance, design, materials, As noted by Galehouse et al. (2003), most of the public and construction personnel can be a significant barrier to understands the importance of maintaining a car or a house implementation. to prevent major repairs. Pavement preservation engineers Complexity in assessing treatment performance and cost- should be able to explain the value of preservation treatments effectiveness. Evaluating and determining treatment per- now, compared with the cost of major repairs later. Also, formance is not an easy task, considering that there are since preservation activities do entail work zones that disrupt different ways in which performance can be evaluated traffic and present safety hazards, preservation engineers (many performance indicators, various performance analy- must also be able to document and communicate the trade- sis techniques) and there are a number of factors that affect offs between shorter work zone durations now versus much performance (existing pavement type and condition, traffic longer ones in the future. level, climatic conditions, construction/materials quality, and so on). Issue 3: Marketplace Pressures Cost-effectiveness analysis can also be complex. Both the EAC and BCR approaches require the development of Like the persistent debates between highway agencies and the reliable unit cost data to go along with the treatment two major pavement industry groups regarding pavement type performance data. Although EAC is a simplified approach, selection, it is important to have documented performance and the added importance of evaluating user costs for high- cost information that can help justify or support a change in traffic-volume facilities can complicate or prolong the pavement treatment policy. A thorough understanding of all

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81 the issues surrounding the performance and cost data is often Issue 6: Heightened Battles just as crucial. In cases where performance and cost data are for Dedicated Funding limited, a more incremental implementation approach, such As is often the case with the development of pavement as construction and monitoring of research test sections, may be warranted. preservation programs, gaining the commitment of top-level management is vital to the successful implementation of preservation guidelines for high-traffic-volume roads. This Issue 4: Database Inadequacies commitment should include not only dedicated funding of A key tool in establishing sound preservation practices is a preservation projects but also the resources needed to collect reliable database containing complete and accurate pavement information on the effectiveness of preservation treatments history, construction/materials, performance, and cost infor- (Galehouse et al. 2003). mation. Information from a reliable database can be used to quantify the benefits of preservation on high-traffic-volume Issue 7: Lack of Experienced Individual(s) facilities, which can help overcome skepticism and gain buy- to Champion Preservation in to the process. It can also be used to analyze the adequacy of treatment designs and the quality of treatment construc- Like any new effort or program within an agency, the imple- tion, so that improvements to the processes can be made that mentation of preservation guidelines for high-traffic-volume enhance performance. Further, it can be used to evaluate roads requires a champion or group of champions. This indi- treatment performance and cost-effectiveness, so that the vidual or group not only is instrumental in addressing the treatment-selection process is benefited. If the agency's prac- many technical issues surrounding the use of different preser- tices associated with monitoring treatment placement and vation treatments but can also be a powerful voice for cre- performance are not adequate for achieving these purposes, ating opportunities for preservation techniques at various then the deficiencies and shortcomings should be identified management levels, including the districts. Ideally, the cham- early on so that steps can be taken to improve the database or pion or champions will consist of the individual(s) responsi- alternative sources of data can be sought. ble for championing the general preservation program. If this individual(s) is not interested or available, then alternatives must be explored, focusing on someone with a passion for, Issue 5: Greater Perception of Risk and substantial experience in, pavement preservation and Besides a gradual approach to implementing preservation preservation-related issues. activities on roadways with higher and higher traffic levels, the highway agency can do at least two things to minimize risk. Issue 8: Complexity in Assessing Treatment First, it should be selective in the types of projects chosen for Performance and Cost-Effectiveness preservation and the type of treatment to be used. In trying to get "the right treatment on the right pavement at the right To the individual(s) directly involved in implementing the time," special attention must be placed on selecting the right preservation guidelines, the task of assessing treatment per- pavement (and time). Second, the highway agency should formance and cost-effectiveness can seem daunting. However, commit all additional available resources toward conducting by identifying champions in other areas of the agency, such a proper design of the treatment, performing the necessary as the pavement management group or the construction/ quality tests, and overseeing the construction workmanship. materials group, the burden of performing these tasks can be These activities will give the treatment the best possible chance lessened. This is because the champions can identify and del- of performing successfully and reducing the likelihood of pre- egate the right people to do the job (i.e., personnel who ana- mature failure. lyze performance or cost-effectiveness on a daily basis).