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9 Table 2.1. List of Studies Using In-Vehicle Cameras Time Frame (Year) Study (Institute That Conducted the Research) 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 a 1. Sleeper Berth (VTTI ) 2. Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (UMTRIb) 3. Quality of Behavioral and Environmental Indicators Used to Infer the Intention to Change Lanes (Chemnitz University of Technology and INRETS )c 4. Lane Change Field Operational Test (VTTI) 5. Road Departure Crash Warning System Field Operational Test (UMTRI) 6. The 100-Car Study (VTTI) 7. Drowsy Driver Warning System Field Operational Test (VTTI) 8. Naturalistic Truck Driving Study (VTTI) 9. Naturalistic Driving Performance During Secondary Tasks (UMTRI) 10. Effect of In-Vehicle Video and Performance Feedback on Teen Driving Behavior (Iowa) 11. Naturalistic Teen Driving Study (VTTI) 12. Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations (CICAS-V)--Infrastructure (VTTI) 13. Pilot Study to Test Multiple Medication Usage and Driving Functioning (NHTSAd) 14. Older Driver Field Operational Test (ongoing study) (VTTI) 15. Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations (CICAS-V)--Pilot Field Operational Test (VTTI) 16. Volvo Driving Behavior Field Operational Test (ongoing study) (Volvo and SAFERe) a Virginia Tech Transportation Institute b University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute c French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Scurit) d National Highway Traffic Safety Administration e SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Driver image data were collected for 8 s (4 s before and Bron, France. It focused on the examination and comparison 4 s after the event) when the ACAS was activated. Alerts of selected behavioral and environmental indicators that pre- consisted of ACC engagements, collision warnings, hard dict the intention to change lanes. Data were collected on a braking, and hard steering. In addition to the video data, multilane motorway between Bron and the Lyon Interna- 250 separate data signals were collected, including data tional Airport (in both directions), with a length of 31 mi in for trip time history, trip transition, trip summary (dura- an area of central France around the city of Lyon. The study tion and counts), trigger summary, buffered Controller included 22 participants aged 24 to 58; among them, 10 were Area Network (CAN) packets, video time and image, and female and 12 were male. Their driving experience ranged audio data. from 2 to 39 years and annual driving distance ranged between The data set also has a valid time stamp and global posi- 1,243 and 31,075 mi. Participants were required to drive a tioning system (GPS) data that can be used to link to weather Renault Scenic equipped to record and synchronize sensor and other environmental data, such as traffic count and work data and videos on this route. zones (4). Video signals were recorded from five sources: (1) stereo- vision camera with radar for distance estimation to obstacles; (2) front view; (3) rear view; (4) view from the left outside mir- Project 3: Quality of Behavioral ror down to the road surface; and (5) view of the participant's and Environmental Indicators head with indications of the eye tracker. Used to Infer the Intention Data other than video data included speed, acceleration, to Change Lanes deceleration, yaw rate, driver's eye movement, steering wheel The study was conducted by the Chemnitz University of Tech- position, pedal use, turn signal, and inclination. Environmen- nology (Chemnitz, Germany) and the Institut National de tal data that included the distance to the car ahead and GPS Recherche sur les Transports et leur Scurit (INRETS) in data were also gathered (5).