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Report S2-L10-RR-1 Feasibility of Using In-Vehicle Video Data to Explore How to Modify Driver Behavior That Causes Nonrecurring Congestion Accelerating solutions for highway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasFort Worth International Airport, Texas Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010) Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, Virginia Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California *Membership as of April 2011.

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The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M Report S2-L10-RR-01 Feasibility of Using In-Vehicle Video Data to Explore How to Modify Driver Behavior That Causes Nonrecurring Congestion H. RAKHA, J. DU, S. PARK, F. GUO, Z. DOERZAPH, AND D. VIITA Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Blacksburg, Virginia G. GOLEMBIEWSKI, B. KATZ, N. KEHOE, AND H. RIGDON Science Applications International Corporation McLean, Virginia TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Subscriber Categories Data and Information Technology Highways Operations and Traffic Management Safety and Human Factors

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The Second Strategic Highway SHRP 2 Report S2-L10-RR-1 Research Program ISBN: 978-0-309-12898-8 America's highway system is critical to meeting the mobility LOCCN: 2011932569 and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technology--such as 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science--offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this Copyright Information important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of sig- Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for nificant transportation problems, however, requires concen- obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- trated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of re- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to search and technology, and is fundamentally different from imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research pro- or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment grams that have been the mainstay of the highway research in- of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the dustry for half a century. material, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in "w" are published as web The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: documents only. Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study Notice sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid de- The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of sign and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program through incident reduction, management, response, and mitiga- sponsors. tion; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environ- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research mental, and community needs in the planning and designing of Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' new transportation capacity. names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memo- randum of understanding among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National SHRP 2 Reports Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of www.TRB.org/bookstore research contractors; independent research project oversight; Contact the TRB Business Office: and dissemination of research results. 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Eduardo Cusicanqui, Finance Officer Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Hans van Saan, Visiting Professional Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Associ- ation of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional for SHRP 2 Reliability. Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) is the primary contractor for this study and is supported by subcontracts through Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). Dr. Hesham A. Rakha, Direc- tor of the Center for Sustainable Mobility (CSM) at VTTI, is the Principal Investigator for this study. The other authors of this report are Dr. Jianhe Du, Senior Research Associate, CSM; Dr. Sangjun Park, Research Associ- ate, CSM; Dr. Feng Guo, Assistant Professor, Statistics Department, Virginia Tech; Dr. Zachary Doerzaph, Senior Research Associate, Center for Vehicle-Infrastructure Safety (CVIS) at VTTI; Derek Viita, Research Associate, CVIS; and Ahmed Amer, Hao Chen, and Ismail Zohdy, graduate student assistants at VTTI. Authors from SAIC are Gary Golembiewski, Research Psychologist; Dr. Bryan Katz, Senior Transportation Engineer; Nicholas Kehoe, Research Engineer; and Heather Rigdon, Research Psychologist.

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F O R E W O R D William Hyman, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer, Reliability This research report--a product of the Reliability focus area of the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2)--presents findings on the feasibility of using existing in-vehicle data sets, collected in naturalistic driving settings, to make inferences about the relationship between observed driver behavior and nonrecurring congestion. General guidance is provided on the protocols and procedures for conducting video data reduction analysis. In addition, the report includes technical guidance on the features, technologies, and complementary data sets that researchers should consider when designing future instrumented in-vehicle data collec- tion studies. Finally, a new modeling approach is advanced for travel time reliability perfor- mance measurement across a variety of traffic congestion conditions. Traffic congestion continues to grow on the nation's highways, increasing the concerns of transportation agencies, the business community, and the general public. Congestion includes recurring and nonrecurring components. Recurring congestion reflects routine day-to-day delays during specific time periods where traffic demand exceeds available roadway capacity. Road users come to expect these daily traffic patterns, and they adjust their travel plans accord- ingly to achieve timely arrivals. Nonrecurring congestion results from random incidents, such as crashes, weather, and work zones, that cause unexpected extra delays. Road users are frus- trated by these unexpected delays, which can make for unreliable arrival times at their desti- nations. The SHRP 2 Reliability research objective focuses on reducing nonrecurring congestion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation. Achieving this objective will improve travel time reliability for both people and freight. Human factors contribute to traffic operating conditions and safety performance on pub- lic roads. This research seeks to better understand how driver behavior influences the primary causes of nonrecurring congestion and to identify countermeasures to modify these behaviors. The research team identified domestic and international candidate studies on driver behavior conducted in recent years that captured video driver behavior data sets and other supplemen- tary data. Evaluation criteria were established to determine the key dimensions of feasibility for selecting the best candidate studies to investigate in detail. The research results provide the foundation for recommendations on the feasibility of using existing data sets for this research purpose; general guidance on the proper protocols, procedures, and facilities to conduct video data reduction; and technical guidance on fea- tures, technologies, and complementary data--all of which should be considered in design- ing future in-vehicle video data collection studies to explicitly examine driver behavior and the impacts on nonrecurring congestion.

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C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Findings 3 Conclusions 3 Limitations of Existing Data Sets 4 Recommendations 6 C H A P T E R 1 Introduction 7 Reference 8 C H A P T E R 2 Existing Studies Using In-Vehicle Video Cameras 8 Project 1: Sleeper Berth 8 Project 2: Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test 9 Project 3: Quality of Behavioral and Environmental Indicators Used to Infer the Intention to Change Lanes 10 Project 4: Lane Change Field Operational Study 10 Project 5: Road Departure Crash Warning System Field Operational Test 10 Project 6: The 100-Car Study 10 Project 7: Drowsy Driver Warning System Field Operational Test 11 Project 8: Naturalistic Truck Driving Study 11 Project 9: Naturalistic Driving Performance During Secondary Tasks 11 Project 10: Effect of In-Vehicle Video and Performance Feedback on Teen Driving Behavior 12 Project 11: Naturalistic Teen Driving Study 12 Project 12: Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations Infrastructure 12 Project 13: Pilot Study to Test Multiple Medication Usage and Driving Functioning 12 Project 14: Older Driver Field Operational Test 13 Project 15: Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations Pilot Field Operational Test 13 Project 16: Volvo Driving Behavior Field Operational Test 13 Concluding Remarks 13 References 15 C H A P T E R 3 Dimensions of Data Feasibility 15 Quality of Vehicle Data 17 Quality of External Data 20 Evaluation of Candidate Data Sets

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26 C H A P T E R 4 Develop a Methodology for Analyzing Data 26 Data Storage and Computation Requirements 28 Data Reduction and Crash and Near-Crash Detection 41 References 42 C H A P T E R 5 General Guidelines for Video Data Analysis 43 General Guidelines for Video Data Reduction 45 References 46 C H A P T E R 6 Measuring Travel Time Reliability 46 Literature Review 49 Proposed Modeling Methodology 54 Conclusions and Discussion 54 References 56 C H A P T E R 7 Potential Problems and Issues in Data Reduction 56 Overall Data Collection 57 Kinematic Data 59 Video Data 60 Reduced Data 62 Other Data Sources 63 References 64 CHAPTER 8 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Data Collection Efforts 64 Contributing Factors and Correctable Driver Behaviors 67 Countermeasures 74 Conclusions 74 Recommendations and Discussion 78 References 79 Appendix A. Project 2 Data Dictionary 87 Appendix B. Project 5 Data Dictionary 94 Appendix C. Project 7 and Project 8 Event Data Dictionary 123 Appendix D. Project 7 and Project 8 Environmental Data Dictionary Color versions of the figures and tables in this report are available online: www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165281.aspx.