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13 Table 2.2. Assessment Criteria Assessment Criteria Considerations Does the process involve coordination Although single-agency processes and process integration yield value, a higher priority was given among more than one agency or to those processes and process integration points that involved more than one division or division within an agency? agency. This would yield beneficial information about institutional agreements and cooperation toward enhanced operational procedures. Does the process integration positively Focus was placed on those processes and integration strategies that could address more than one impact one or more types of dimension or source of nonrecurring congestion. The ability to leverage benefits of coordinating nonrecurring congestion? processes that could point to tangible benefits in more than one operational area was a key consideration. Are there documented impacts on This proved to be one of the more challenging criteria to map to candidate case studies. Although improved travel time reliability, many programs and regions are embarking on formal performance monitoring programs, including qualitative and quantitative? available data are too inconsistent to draw a linear relationship between process integration and improvements to travel time. In some cases, where agencies or partnerships have implemented specific processes and procedures to reduce the time it takes to respond to and clear incidents from roadways, there is a relationship to specific metrics that would indicate the impact on travel time. In other cases, important enablers to process integration and change (such as instituting training programs or having a programming process within an agency that gives priority to congestion management enhancements) may ultimately yield positive impacts on reliability, but the link may not necessarily be direct. Are there clear examples of business Process integration was initially viewed as multiple steps within an operational activity that were processes that have been integrated brought together in a specific way. As the project evolved, the integration at the institutional at the operational level or the level emerged as an important separator in identifying successful integration strategies. institutional level? Are there policy-related impacts, or There are different policy considerations for the various processes involved in this research. required policies to support business Candidate case studies were reviewed to identify the role that formal policy plays in either process integration? implementing a business process or integrating a process with another entity or within an organization. Can outcomes or approaches be applied An important outcome of this research was to identify successful strategies that regions could to other areas with similar results of apply to their situation and achieve similar results. There will be some variability among improved travel time reliability? strategies, but concepts and processes that may be transferable will aid in applying the research. Are the measures of effective integration This criterion refers to the sustainability of the process to support longer-term reliability goals and sustainable? Have they demonstrated objectives. Processes that are aimed at recurring strategies (such as incident clearance proce- consistent results over time? dures and weather event management) can help demonstrate repeated benefits. workshop involved a significant amount of conversation researched for their applicability to transportation agency related to issues and challenges faced within the stakeholders' processes. Once an effective modeling tool was identified, it departments or agencies. There also was significant conversa- was important to look at the key elements within the process tion about the enablers of each case study and how to overcome and determine how these elements would be used to map busi- challenges throughout implementation of new processes. It was ness processes from transportation agencies. important for the attendees to evaluate the applicability of the findings to arrive at information that could benefit operations Process Model Approaches within other agencies. and Notations Considered A consistent approach to process diagram is needed to present Modeling Business Processes the case studies and demonstrate that the actions or activities The L01 project focused on identifying and documenting result in a specific or desired outcome. Business processes are business processes that have successfully improved travel time activities encompassing several agencies or departments within reliability. In order to analyze the identified business processes an agency that ultimately produce an outcome or output. and, more importantly, to identify key integration points Through initial research, several alternate approaches to within the processes, a consistent approach to mapping busi- business process models were identified for analysis. Five ness processes is required. Various business processes were approaches that were considered by the research team are
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14 Table 2.3. Case Studies Case Study Description Agency Washington State DOT Describes one of several programs the Washington State DOT and Washing- WSDOT Joint Operations Policy ton State Patrol have implemented to support their Joint Operations Statement and Instant Policy Statement for incident response and management and to support Tow Dispatch Program their goals for faster clearance of incidents on highways. Florida Road Rangers Describes the use of contracted, private tow vendors and sponsors to Florida DOT deliver a freeway service patrol program throughout the state of Florida. Also describes the performance metrics for measuring effectiveness of the program and the impact on incident clearance times. United Kingdom Active Describes the pilot corridor for ATM strategies for recurring congestion, as UK Highways Agency Traffic Management well as the incident response and management program. North Carolina DOT Traffic Describes North Carolina DOT's evaluation process for major work zones North Carolina DOT and Safety Operations and traffic and safety impacts as a result of changes in work zones. This Committee committee has established a process to identify, evaluate, and imple- ment mitigation strategies to offset negative impacts on travel time relia- bility and safety within the work zone. Michigan DOT Work Zone Describes the microsimulation model developed by the Michigan DOT to Michigan DOT Traffic Control Modeling model the impacts of freeway construction closures on an entire network. Results of the microsimulation model were applied to incident manage- ment and operations strategies, as well as to alternate route planning. The goal was to minimize impacts to the surrounding freeway network as a result of a major freeway reconstruction (I-75 Ambassador Bridge). Kansas Speedway Describes the development of traffic management procedures to support Kansas DOT and Kansas Special-Event Traffic large-scale event traffic at the new speedway facility. Through effective Highway Patrol Management process coordination, agencies have reduced the number of officers needed in the field for traffic ingress and egress management and have reduced the time to clear parking lots following large-scale events. The Palace of Auburn Hills, Describes the traffic signal timing plans developed specifically for events at Road Commission of Oakland Special-Event Traffic the Palace. Plans were developed to flush traffic away from the event County and Auburn Hills Management (Michigan) venue, and have resulted in reduced event venue clearance times, and Police Department streamlined the number of officers required to manage event traffic. I-80 Winter State Line Identifies the series of processes that are initiated when Caltrans closes the Nevada DOT Headquarters Closures (California and state line on I-80 during winter weather events. Nevada DOT is focused and Nevada DOT District 2 Nevada State Line) on notifying westbound travelers, particularly freight, of the state line clo- Operations sure to minimize the illegal parking and truck queuing that can occur on I-80 while trucks wait for the state line to reopen. AZTech Regional Archived Describes the evolution of a database initially developed to store freeway Maricopa County DOT Data Server (Arizona) data into a central repository for agencies to access real-time incident and traffic operations data. Information available from the Regional Archived Data Server allows agencies to implement changes in their traffic management strategies to respond to real-time conditions in neighboring jurisdictions that could affect their roadways. San Pablo Avenue Signal Describes a multiagency approach to developing corridor traffic signal tim- Metropolitan Transportation Retiming (California) ing plans. Overall program measures show an improvement in travel time Commission and a decrease in fuel consumption. identified in Table 2.4. Each approach was analyzed based on Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) for this proj- its applicability to modeling different transportation opera- ect. The BPMN was developed to improve communication tions processes. between participants at the design level of a process with those at the implementation stage. In order to improve com- munication, a simplified, easy-to-understand set of rules Business Process Modeling Notation were required. It also was important that these rules could After identifying and considering all the options for mod- be applied against several industry types beyond software eling business processes, the research team selected the development.
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15 Table 2.4. Business Process Modeling Approaches Process Modeling Type Primary Use Advantages Disadvantages Business Process A standard modeling tool used as a · IBM template for use with Visio is · Converting to another tool may Modeling Notations common visual representation to available. be difficult. (BPMN) display the business process design · Diagramming elements are · It may not be conducive to for all stakeholders within the relatively easy to understand modeling routine work. process flow. for all stakeholders. · Recognized industry standard for different types of processes, including activities, data, and outputs. Unified Modeling A standard modeling language used as · Combines several data modeling · Can be difficult to learn and Language (UML) (2) a visual representation, including practices into one model adopt to nondata processes. graphical notation, to model the language. · Line styles are very similar, parts of a system or methodology. · Can be used with all processes. making it hard to distinguish UML diagrams represent three different types of information views of a system model: functional · Can be used with different flows. requirements view, static structural technologies for implementation view, and the dynamic behavior purposes. · Information may be lost when view. UML can be used as the basis trying to import the informa- for activity diagrams and interaction tion into another tool. overview diagramming. Unified Software A generic tool that is used as framework · It is use-case driven; each used · Not user-friendly; requires much Development Process for customizing analysis and design through implementation, test, more in-depth understanding (Unified Process) (3) for the life cycle of a system. It uses and deployment. of the workflow of a system. the UML standards. · Supports multiple architectural · Involves many detailed steps models and views. and phases. · Focuses on addressing critical · Can be time-consuming to risks. develop. · Used more for system design than for system diagramming. IBM Rational Unified A refinement of the Unified Process, · Can be adapted and customized · Presented at a higher level, Process (RUP) (4) but also a trademark of IBM, RUP to fit project or organization which makes it hard to deter- provides guidance and examples needs. mine key processes. that are tailored by the organization · Uses processes that have · Must satisfy criteria already to assist in the development and already proved successful defined in the process in implementation of a system or used for other similar projects. order to continue to the next as a project management tool. phase, which could be time- · Adaptable to other countries; consuming. the tool is available in several languages. · Used more for system design than for system diagramming. Event-Driven Process A graphical depiction of events and · Several tools can be used to · Not all the tools support the Chain (EPC) functions that represent a dynamic create the diagram. EPC markup language modeling business process. The (EPML). · Uses simple and easy-to- Event-Driven Process Chain was understand notation. · Has to be event-driven; the developed within the framework of diagram must start and end Architecture of Integrated Information with a specific event. Systems (ARIS). IBM published the BPMN notations and specifications in objects and definitions within Visio. IBM also provides on the 2004 and continues to provide guidance and support for organ- website a software demonstration for BPMN using the stencil izations looking to use the BPMN approach. IBM also provides and Microsoft Visio, one of the most widely used desktop a Visio stencil containing BPMN elements, which can be design tools for modeling various processes and integration downloaded from their website. The benefits of using the sten- scenarios business processes. The diagram can be imported cil include allowing the user to incorporate BPMN-standard into a process engine or copied into a document as a figure.
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16 Start Event: An event to begin the process. Intermediate Event: Connects the end of one process to the beginning of another process. End Event: An event to simply end the process. Figure 2.1. BPMN flow objects for events. BPMN is a strong fit for diagramming operational proce- Flow objects activities are the tasks or subprocesses associ- dures and processes. The use of the stencil and Microsoft Visio ated with the overall process. The task can be a single task or creates an intuitive tool that helps users in modeling complex one that includes additional subtasks that may not need to be operational processes. BPMN uses four basic categories of displayed within the current diagram. If need be, the additional shapes familiar to business analysts to determine whether an steps of the subtask can be displayed within another diagram activity is a procedure or a process. The four categories of and then referenced in the main process diagram. The standard shapes are as follows: tasks that were used for this project are shown in Figure 2.2. Flow objects gateways are decision markers to display where · Flow objects (events, activities, gateways); information diverges or converges within the sequence flow. · Artifacts (data objects, groups); Gateways are used for forking, merging, and joining paths as · Connecting objects (sequence flow, message flow, associa- the sequence flows through the processes. For decision mak- tion); and ing, they are used to show the direction, depending on the · Swim lanes (pools, lanes). answer to typical questions, such as yes or no, or to more com- plex questions that have three possible answers. For this proj- The flow objects events typically affect the flow of the process ect, four main gateways were used (Figure 2.3). by either cause or effect. The events can start the process, end Artifacts are provided within BPMN for the user to have a the process, or have an intermediate effect within the process little more flexibility in presenting information about objects to suggest several choices the process may precede. Three or tasks. They do not change the basic structure of the process event items are used for this project, which are presented in but are model tools that provide additional notation or infor- Figure 2.1. mation to the basic objects within the diagram. At the time Task: A single process task by a participant within the lane. Collapsed Subprocess: Part of the process that involves multiple steps or tasks that do not necessarily need to be shown. Loop Activity: An activity or task that is repeated within the process. Figure 2.2. BPMN flow objects for activities.
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17 Parallel Gateway: Designates that either one flow can take two alternative paths or two paths diverge into one flow. All criteria must be met before the flow can proceed. Complex Gateway: Designates that the decision results in a complex answer or that there are complex issues surrounding the decision. Inclusive Gateway: Designates that a decision needs to be made to determine the path of the flow through the process. Exclusive Gateway: Designates that a decision does not need to be made to determine the path of the flow, but that the path is expected. All criteria do not need to be met before the flow can proceed. Figure 2.3. BPMN flow objects for gateways. this report was prepared, BPMN had three predefined artifact that correspond to each owning agency. They are used in types; however, this project only focused on two types of arti- BPMN to categorize functionalities. Swim lanes include either facts (Figure 2.4). a pool, which represents each participant in the activity, or a Connecting objects are used to connect the flow objects lane, which is a subpartition to categorize activities. For each (events, activities, and gateways). They are the connectors or case study presented in this analysis, horizontal swim lanes are flows in the process that show the many paths possible from used to present each of the agencies or working groups in an the many activities or tasks. The diagrams in Figure 2.5 define agency that are involved. Vertical swim lanes are used to divide all three BPMN types of connecting objects. the overall process into three core areas. Figure 2.6 shows ver- In addition to the available elements, swim lanes, or cross- tical and horizontal representations of the pools and lanes functional connections, are used to differentiate the elements diagrams. Data Object: Displays the data required or produced by activities or tasks. Group Object: Displays for the reader when certain activities or tasks occur at the same time. It is used primarily for documentation or analysis purposes. Figure 2.4. BPMN artifacts.
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18 Sequence Flow: Designates the main flow throughout the process. The flow connects events to gateways, vice versa, or to tasks or activities. Message Flow: Designates the flow between two pools or two business roles or participants. This cannot be used to connect activities or events within the same pool. Association Flow: Designates a relationship between an Artifact and a Flow Object (task or gateway). Figure 2.5. BPMN connecting objects. Horizontal Pool Horizontal Lane Vertical Pool Vertical Lane Figure 2.6. BPMN pools and swim lanes.