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3 The final step in the research and analysis portion of the project involved a two-day workshop with selected representation from across the country (1). The individuals who were invited were from the management level of their respective organizations but were for the most part still closely and integrally involved with operations and processes that could affect travel time reliability. The invitees represented various roles in the agencies where they worked, including planning, opera- tions, and program management. The following were the participating agencies in the workshop: · American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; · Arizona EMS Bureau; · CH2M Hill; · Kansas DOT; · Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.; · Maricopa County DOT/AZTech; · Michigan DOT; · Nevada DOT; · North Carolina DOT; · North Central Texas Council of Governments; · Oregon DOT; · Transportation Research Board/SHRP 2; and · Wisconsin DOT. The workshop involved a significant amount of conversation related to the issues and challenges in the participants' departments or agencies. There also was significant conversation about the enablers identified in each case study and about how these enablers could be categorized and shared to assist other agencies in integrating their processes. The participants evaluated the applicability of the findings from the case studies and identified the information that could benefit the opera- tions of other agencies. Findings The initial intent of this project was to identify clearly defined integration points in successful busi- ness processes that demonstrated a link to improved travel time reliability. As the case studies evolved, it was found that there were two distinct aspects to process integration that were critical to support reliability-focused operations: process integration at the operations level and process integration at the institutional or programmatic level. At the operations level, various processes and activities evolve and are coordinated among those who are responsible for overseeing or car- rying out operational initiatives. There is often a direct link between the process and the outcome. Process integration at the programmatic or institutional level is a much more complex undertak- ing. Not only are there different constraints to be worked through, but there is also a much less direct relationship between programmatic processes and their contribution to travel time reliabil- ity. Yet, institutionalizing processes so that they influence training, managing staff and resources, planning, programming, and policy making is essential to effective business process integra- tion. In order to assist agencies in implementing business process change and integrating business processes, the key influences and obstacles were identified. Based on the analysis of the case studies and the feedback from participants at the L01 workshop (1), influences on business processes were categorized into specific groups according to the event or directive that initiated the process change or process development. The categories were devel- oped into the following three tiers: · Major-directive, or "top-down," approach: This category includes influences that involve legislative requirements or management-level goals or directives.