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4 Event-driven approach: This includes cases in which a specific event or hazard prompts the need for improving operations. Needs-based, or "bottom-up," approach: This includes cases in which process change or devel- opment is initiated or coordinated at the operations level, often in response to specific activities or needs. Whatever the influence, it was found that all agencies encounter obstacles when they begin to evaluate, implement, or modify a process. Some of these obstacles are common among agencies, while others are unique to individual agencies. Some of the obstacles can be conquered through modifications to the process; others may require institutional changes. The obstacles listed below were identified from the interviews and the L01 workshop. They were among the most common obstacles to integrating business processes to improve travel time reliability. Departments of transportation historically are construction and maintenance focused and not operations focused; Although reliability is emerging as an important metric among agencies, often it does not spur process implementation or integration; The agency stakeholders or partners who contribute to reliability-focused strategies often have different motivations and approaches to process implementation and process change; and The process modeling that was mapped out in the case studies may not be at a level that is typ- ical of how a DOT or other stakeholder agency would view individual operational processes, creating a challenge in identifying critical gaps or breakdowns in specific processes. Conclusions The case studies included in the research represent a broad range of potential processes and inte- gration strategies and include process integration at both the operations and institutional levels. There are benefits to be derived from these case studies that could be applied in other areas as well. Guidance from the L01 workshop participants indicated that there would be more benefit in gen- eralizing outcomes and deriving common elements from across the profiled processes. Figure ES.1 provides a representation of the generalized steps that can be referenced for mapping out business processes, showing common elements and factors to successfully integrate and institutionalize business processes. Figure ES.1. Steps in business process mapping.