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6 The challenge that remains is to take the lessons learned from the case studies and workshop and to use them to assist other agencies in examining their own business processes and in looking for gaps and opportunities in process integration. It was evident, through development of the case studies, that there is no single approach to business process integration that will work for all agen- cies. The factors that led to process changes varied among three categories: major directives, event driven, or needs based. The differences in agency organization, institutional arrangements, politi- cal climates, and other variables mean that process integration will happen in different ways and at different paces in different areas. It is recommended that greater focus be placed on assisting agencies to integrate business processes at the institutional or programmatic level rather than at the operations level. At the oper- ations level, processes vary widely and are usually coordinated among those who are responsible for carrying out operational initiatives. One forum to help elevate process integration within agencies could be a training course or workshop based on case studies across the country with a focus on the elements that led an agency to implement and institutionalize a programmatic change. Focus could be on both general case study reviews and specific needs in a region. Action plans for implementing and institutionalizing specific business processes for better travel time reliability would be the goals of the workshops. The workshops or training courses should teach a method of documenting business processes, such as BPMN. They should also emphasize the enablers that lead to the institutionalization of business processes, such as performance measures, evaluation methods, and formal agreements. Finally, workshops or courses should emphasize the role of business processes in developing regional ITS architectures and systems engineering analysis. Both the architecture and system engineering analysis efforts can be effective methods of assisting agencies in developing more efficient and inte- grated processes. Reference 1. SHRP 2 L01 Workshop: Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability. Phoenix, Ariz. May 59, 2009.