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C H A P T E R 8 Analysis and Applicability to Other Agencies When this project was initiated, the intent was to identify implementation and integration at both operations and clearly defined integration points in successful business institutional levels (1). processes that demonstrate a link to improved travel time reliability. As the case studies evolved, two distinct aspects Influences to Process to process integration came to be identified as being criti- Initiation, Change, cal to supporting reliability-focused operations: process and Integration integration at the operations level and at the institutional or programmatic level. Each poses different challenges in Based on the analysis of the case studies and the feedback from terms of process implementation, execution, and overall participants at the L01 workshop (2), influences on business integration. processes could be categorized into specific groups according At the operations level, various processes and activities to the event or directive that initiated the process change or evolve and are coordinated among those who are responsible process development. The categories were developed into three tiers, as follows: for overseeing or carrying out operational initiatives (such as steps a traffic management center operator takes to initiate Major directive, or "top-down," approach: Includes leg- notification to travelers). There is often a direct link between islative requirement or management-level goal or directive the process and the outcome (although it might take a collec- that requires implementing new processes or examining tive set of processes to result in a significant outcome). Process and revising existing approaches. Top-down directives can integration at the programmatic level is a much more complex greatly accelerate the priority and pace of process change undertaking. Not only are there different constraints to be within an agency or among partners. worked through at the institutional level, there is also a Event-driven influence: There is a specific event or hazard much less direct relationship between those programmatic that has prompted the need for improving operations, processes and their contribution to travel time reliability. Yet, such as to support a large-scale event or breakdowns in institutionalizing processes so that they influence training, operational processes during catastrophic events such as a staffing and resource management, planning, programming, hurricane evacuation or massive winter storm. and policy are essential enablers to effective business process Needs-based, or "bottom-up," approach: Processes that integration. are initiated or coordinated at the operations level, often This section is intended to aggregate the data collected in response to specific activities or needs, such as day-to- through this research and present findings that can be day management of incidents, traffic signal operations, or applied by other agencies. The observations look at key enabling information exchanges for more effective real- players or stakeholders that are important to the effective- time system management. ness of a process, trends that are present within multiple agencies, gaps identified by the participants, and lessons The range of influences makes it challenging to point to a learned from the agencies studied. The Guide to Integrating specific catalyst or type of catalyst that is often the most suc- Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability pro- cessful in influencing processes and process change. Table 8.1 vides unique insights into how agencies can apply some of summarizes the three tiers and the types of influences that the findings from the research to examine their own process were identified as part of the case studies. 72