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73 Table 8.1. Summary of Influences from Case Studies Tier 1: Major Directive (Top Down) WSDOT/WSP Joint Operations The executive leadership of WSDOT and WSP led the development of the Joint Operations Policy Statement Policy Statement (JOPS) Agreement. The leadership is responsible for review and signature of the JOPS Agreement each year. The JOPS Agreement also provided the basis for WSDOT and WSP to respond to the governor's request for topdown performance reporting on incident response and clearance times. NCDOT Traffic and Safety Based on the Federal Rule for Work Zones Traffic Control, DOTs are required to evaluate and manage Operations Committee work zones to minimize the impact on capacity and safety. This committee is one of the initiatives started in response to the rule. Kansas Speedway Special-Event With the construction of a new raceway facility, there was a need to develop a coordinated strategy to Traffic Management Plan effectively manage event traffic. KDOT received a directive from the governor of Kansas to develop a plan and provide funding for the necessary infrastructure improvements to support access to the Speedway location. Tier 2: Event-Driven--Political, Public Relations Michigan DOT Work Zone Michigan DOT needed a strategy to identify impacts on the Detroit-area freeway network resulting from a Modeling major reconstruction program on I-75. I-80 State Line Closures Periodic closures of I-80 at the California/Nevada state line and limited available truck parking and storage on the Nevada side has prompted a series of operational responses by Nevada DOT aimed at providing advance notification to freight traffic about the closures. Tier 3: Needs Based/Opportunity Based/Grassroots FDOT Road Rangers Expansion of a localized freeway service patrol program to a statewide program through public-private partnerships The Palace of Auburn Hills Event The Auburn Hills Police Department coordinated with the RCOC, MDOT, and the Palace to develop a Management Strategies comprehensive traffic management plan that decreased the required load-out time for the facility. MTC Regional Signal Timing The MTC RSTP was developed to provide funding for local agencies with limited traffic engineering Program resources with regionally significant corridors that cross through their jurisdiction. AZTech Regional Data Server With multiple traffic operations centers in the Phoenix metropolitan area managing several cross-jurisdictional corridors, a regional database was established to provide a central repository for agencies to provide and access information about real-time road network operations. UK Active Traffic Management The ATM was developed based on a safety analysis of key corridors in the UK and potential mitigation strategies to address those concerns. Obstacles to Process Change within a DOT can often be difficult to change. Processes evolve differently among different divisions, even if they Whatever the influence, all agencies encounter varying obsta- are part of the same overall organization. Communication cles when they begin to evaluate, implement, or modify a among these groups varies; direct communication among process. Some of these obstacles are common among agencies, divisions largely depends on their respective roles and how whereas others are unique to individual agencies. Some of the often they must interact in response to day-to-day opera- obstacles can be conquered through modifications to the tions needs. For instance, improvements to a process that process; others may require institutional changes. The follow- involves traffic management center operational procedures ing obstacles were identified from the interviews and from con- and dispatching the DOT's in-house incident response team versations with the L01 workshop attendees. They represent a are likely to be much easier to achieve because the enti- large sampling of the issues experienced by agencies across the ties involved can collaborate on how to change or improve country. specific steps. When process change or improvement is dependent on upper-level divisions making modifications to Departments of transportation historically are focused on resource management or allocation strategies in response to construction and maintenance and not on operations, what the field response team needs to better support its oper- although the operations focus is gaining more ground. ational activities, there are likely to be more justifications, Processes that tend to affect multiple divisions or groups research, or approvals required to implement process