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76 but documenting the key steps, relationships, information process is important to guarantee that it will sustain and evolve exchanges, and other factors can yield several benefits. This can beyond the current players and champions. This section dis- be achieved through developing informal MOUs or more for- cusses the enablers used in many of the case studies to integrate mal intergovernmental agreements to document roles, respon- successful business processes that affect travel time reliability. sibilities, objectives, and expected outcomes. Operations The senior-level managers within an organization require manuals provide another mechanism for capturing details. certain motivators and incentives to implement a process Integrate Process: Processes become integrated either change. Because DOT agencies are held accountable to the through deliberate efforts or as a result of evolution over time. public, clearly identified performance measures and results can For a process to become part of day-to-day operations or to jus- provide valuable tools for promoting the success of an agency. tify a change in current processes, there needs to be a demon- These performance measures also support the implementa- stration of tangible benefits, both at the operations level (on tion of new processes by providing anticipated benefits to the ground) and at the programmatic and institutional levels. the public. Implementation can be a challenge but so is evolution and Evaluation methods and reporting abilities on the effective- institutionalizing process change. ness of operations are critical. The ability to demonstrate that Once a process is developed, modifications may be needed benefits are connected with specific actions or activities assists to make it more tangible and meaningful to other entities that in building support and buy-in for the implementation of a it could directly benefit. The MDOT Work Zone modeling case process change. Access to documentation of proven processes study provides an example of modifying a tool that was devel- and their associated performance measures allows management oped by the planning group into a tool that can be used by the to more easily support new processes within an organization. construction engineer. Although the work zone model, devel- Improved business processes can have high-level impacts for an oped using a microsimulation application, and the outputs are organization, such as better resource management (including valuable and intuitive to planners and can provide important streamlining of staffing needs through partnering and automat- information to support better work zone scheduling, the tool ing of processes). is not in a format that the construction engineer can easily Many programs undergo an evolutionary process as they use to identify changing impacts in a work zone. MDOT has grow. They start small and with a limited scope and, over time, looked into how to translate the work zone model's planning may expand in the services they offer and their geographic product and outputs into a more usable tool for the construc- scope. Unlike processes that start on a large scale with wide- tion engineering group, which would allow them to make ranging objectives, programs that start small and evolve can modifications based on changing work zone configurations or sometimes be more easily institutionalized because there is not schedules (at the time this report was prepared, this had not a great deal of mass to get moving and accepted into an insti- been completed). The ability to transfer that process demon- tution. The FDOT Road Ranger case study provides a good strates an important integration point and establishes a link example of a program that started locally and expanded over between two divisions (planning and construction) that typi- time. The program that was initially implemented in a single cally have limited coordination in the context of a large-scale district has evolved into a statewide program that is now insti- reconstruction project. tutionalized at both the local and statewide levels. Institutionalizing Business Processes: The final step to It is noted that formal agreements may not directly con- successful process integration is the ability to translate it into a tribute to the success of process integration, but the devel- core process within the organization. This requires more than opment of a formal agreement does provide strong support adopting operational activities or processes and is dependent through documentation of the participating agencies' com- on buy-in and support by agency leaders. The next section mitments. As personnel change, this documentation aids describes the complexities of institutionalizing processes in in maintaining the relationship between the players, thereby more detail. strengthening the relationships. WSDOT and AZTech both use formal agreements to document the commitment from the participating agencies. WSDOT requires an annual approval Institutionalizing Business and signature from the directors of the DOT and state police Processes for the JOPS Agreement. This reaffirms the commitment from The case studies suggest that implementing a process change the agencies and promotes consistency as directors change. and integrating various processes often occur at the opera- AZTech uses agreements as agencies join the regional database tional level, but institutionalizing the process typically requires to clearly state the expectations and requirements placed on the participation and support from higher levels within an each agency. Updates to the agreements are only required if organization. Proven processes can benefit the organization the roles and responsibilities change. The MTC Regional Sig- and the participants for a few years, but institutionalizing a nal Timing Program requires the approval of the MTC board.