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78 to developing integrated processes (2). At both the operational agencies. The workshops could be designed to provide both and programmatic levels, agencies were able to improve process general case study reviews and focus on specific needs in a efficiency, decrease costs, and implement changes that resulted region. Action plans for implementing and institutionalizing in measurable travel time reliability improvements. specific business processes for better travel time reliability The challenge that remains is to take the lessons learned could be the result of the workshops. As part of the workshops, from the case studies and workshop and use them to assist a method of documenting business processes, such as the other agencies in examining their own business processes BPMN presented in Chapter 2 could be taught. Use of BPMN and looking for gaps (or opportunities) in process integra- is certainly not required to implement processes, but it does tion. It was evident through the case studies that there is no provide a useful method of documenting existing processes one-size-fits-all approach to business process integration. The and developing future processes that provide the level of inte- influences that led to process changes varied among three gration necessary to improve travel time reliability. categories: major directives, event-driven, or needs-based. A training course or workshop should also emphasize the The differences in the organizations of agencies throughout enablers that led to the institutionalization of business pro- the country, institutional arrangements, political climate, and cesses that are presented in this chapter (Institutionalizing many other variables mean that process integration will hap- Business Processes). Enablers included evaluation methods pen in different ways and at different paces in different areas. that allow an agency to determine the impact of a process Greater focus should be placed on assisting agencies with change, performance measurement programs that allow an integration of business processes at the institutional or pro- agency to track the benefits of a change, and formal agree- grammatic level rather than at the operational level. At the ments that document a process change and specify the role of operational level, processes vary and are usually coordinated each agency's involvement. The course can also emphasize the among those who are responsible for carrying out operational role of business processes in developing regional ITS architec- initiatives. An example was provided earlier in this chapter of tures and systems engineering analysis. Both the architecture the steps a traffic management center operator takes to initiate and the system engineering analysis efforts can be effective notification to travelers. Changes to an operational process methods of assisting agencies in developing more efficient and such as this typically involve fewer agencies and people and can integrated processes. be more easily evaluated to determine if a change that has been Ultimately, the successful integration of business processes made is effective and of value. will depend on the staffs of various agencies at all levels work- Institutional- or programmatic-level changes to processes ing together toward a common goal of improved travel time tend to be more challenging to implement, as well as more chal- reliability. Presenting examples of successfully integrated busi- lenging to institutionalize. In the L01 workshop in Phoenix, the ness processes, as well as providing assistance through work- participants were particularly interested in how agencies made shops to develop action plans for agencies, may serve as a the transformation of implementing and institutionalizing catalyst for a region. These types of workshops will not provide programmatic-level changes (2). The actual process itself instant results but could help agencies throughout the country was not as useful, because processes will vary throughout the to move further along on their own path toward optimizing country based on specific needs and goals for travel time reli- their systems and providing improved travel time reliability. ability. But how a process was implemented and institution- alized can provide valuable information to other agencies and References enable them to more successfully implement and institution- alize their own programmatic changes. 1. Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., and PB Consult. SHRP 2 Report S2-L01-RR-2: Guide to Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel A training course or workshop based on case studies across Time Reliability. Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- the country with a focus on the elements that led an agency emies, Washington, D.C., forthcoming. to implement and institutionalize a programmatic change 2. SHRP 2 L01 Workshop: Integrating Business Processes to Improve could be one forum to help elevate process integration within Travel Time Reliability. Phoenix, Ariz. May 59, 2009.