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REPORT S2-L01-RR-1 Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability Accelerating solutions for highway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasFort Worth International Airport, Texas Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010) Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, Virginia Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California *Membership as of April 2011.

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The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-L01-RR-1 Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability KIMLEY-HORN AND ASSOCIATES, INC. In association with PB CONSULT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Subscriber Categories Administration and Management Highways Operations and Traffic Management

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The Second Strategic Highway SHRP 2 Report S2-L01-RR-1 Research Program ISBN: 978-0-309-12903-9 America's highway system is critical to meeting the mobility Library of Congress Control Number: 2011936709 and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technology--such as 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science--offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this Copyright Information important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of sig- Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for ob- nificant transportation problems, however, requires concen- taining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright trated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of re- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to search and technology, and is fundamentally different from imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research pro- or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment grams that have been the mainstay of the highway research in- of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the ma- dustry for half a century. terial, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: and publication format. Report numbers ending in "w" are published as web documents only. Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act Notice for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid de- the National Research Council. sign and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program through incident reduction, management, response, and mitiga- sponsors. tion; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environ- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National mental, and community needs in the planning and designing of Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' new transportation capacity. names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memorandum of understanding among the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The SHRP 2 Reports program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of re- Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: search contractors; independent research project oversight; and www.TRB.org/bookstore dissemination of research results. Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Eduardo Cusicanqui, Finance Officer Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by David Plazak, Senior Program Officer for SHRP 2 Capacity and Reliability. The research reported herein was performed by Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. (KHA) and PB Consult. KHA was the prime contractor for this study, and PB Consult served as subconsultant. Pierre Pretorius, PE, Senior Vice President at KHA, served as project manager and co-principal inves- tigator. Lisa M. Burgess, Vice President at KHA, was the co-principal investigator. The other authors of this report and members of the research team were Thomas M. Fowler, PE, PTOE, Vice President, KHA; Jeffery W. Dale, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Deanna Townsend, Analyst, KHA; Amy Lewis, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Amanda R. Good, Analyst, KHA; and Steve Lockwood, PB Consult, review/technical adviser. Numerous representatives from the selected case study programs were interviewed by the research team and provided valuable input to the research effort. They include Rick Phillips, Incident Response Program Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation; Patrick Odom, Traffic Incident Management and Road Ranger Program Manager, Florida Department of Transportation; David Grant, Group Man- ager of ATM, Highways Agency, United Kingdom; Joseph Ishak, PE, Central Work Zone Traffic Control Section Engineer, North Carolina Department of Transportation; Jennifer Portanova, PE, Project Design Engineer, North Carolina Department of Transportation; Catharine Jensen, Transportation Planner, Michigan Department of Transportation; Leslie Spencer-Fowler, ITS Program Manager, Kansas Department of Transportation; Mick Halter, PE, Retired District One Metro Engineer, Kansas Department of Transportation; Lt. Brian Basore, Kansas Highway Patrol; Lt. Paul Behm, Kansas Highway Patrol; Danielle Deneau, PE, Signal Operations Engineer, Road Commission for Oakland County, Michigan; Capt. Jim Mynesberge, Auburn Hills Police Department, Michigan; Denise Inda, PE, PTOE, Assistant Chief Operations Engineer, Nevada Department of Transportation; Mike Fuess, PE, PTOE, District 2 Traffic Engineer, Nevada Department of Transportation; John Talbott, District 2 Road Operations Center, Nevada Department of Transportation; Faisal Saleem, ITS Program Manager, Maricopa County Department of Transportation, Arizona; Jeff Georgevich, Senior Program Coordinator, Oakland County Metropolitan Transporta- tion Commission, California; and Vamsi Tabjulu, Arterial Operations Program Manager, Oakland County Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California. The SHRP 2 Reliability Project L01 workshop Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability was held in Phoenix, Ariz., from May 5 to 6, 2009. Attendees were Natalie Bettger, Senior Program Manager, North Central Texas Council of Governments; Mark Bush, PE, PTOE, Program Manager for Operations, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; John Corbin, PE, PTOE, State Traffic Engineer, Wisconsin Department of Transportation; John Conrad, PE, CH2M Hill; Leslie Spencer-Fowler, ITS Program Man- ager, Kansas Department of Transportation; Catharine Jensen, Transportation Planner, Michigan Department of Transportation; Galen McGill, PE, Intelligent Transportation Systems Manager, Oregon Department of Transportation; Terry Mullins, Bureau Chief, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma Systems, Arizona Department of Health Services; Rick Nelson, PE, Assistant Director of Operations, Nevada Department of Transportation; David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, SHRP 2; Faisal Saleem, ITS Program Manager, Maricopa County Department of Transportation/AZTech; Battle Whitley, PE, Division Operations Engineer, North Carolina Department of Trans- portation; Lisa M. Burgess, Vice President, KHA; Jeffery W. Dale, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Thomas M. Fowler, PE, PTOE, Vice President, KHA; Amanda R. Good, Analyst, KHA; and Pierre Pretorius, PE, Senior Vice President, KHA.

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F O R E W O R D David J. Plazak, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Improving travel time reliability is an emerging business activity for transportation agencies in the United States. To improve the reliability of travel times on their roadway networks, transportation agencies must advance on a number of fronts. These include collecting and analyzing data; integrating travel time reliability considerations into planning, program- ming, and project delivery; adopting innovative operational strategies and technologies; and modifying their institutional structures and business practices surrounding traffic opera- tions. This report addresses various ways that transportation agencies can reengineer their day-to-day business practices to improve traffic operations, address nonrecurring traffic congestion, and improve the reliability of travel times delivered to roadway system users. The report is based on a series of case studies, mainly from the United States, that describe suc- cessful business processes. One case study on active traffic management from the United King- dom is also presented. The case studies show how business processes were successfully reengineered in operational areas such as traffic incident management (TIM), work zone man- agement, planned special-event management, road weather management, and traffic control system management. Students of traffic operations will recognize these subject areas as corre- sponding to five of the seven causes of nonrecurring traffic congestion. (The two that are left out are related to inadequate base roadway capacity and fluctuations in travel demand.) This research report and an accompanying guide also provide a detailed introduction to one of the most useful tools for business process reengineering: business process mapping. An approach to business process mapping developed by the IBM Corporation for use in automating business processes, called Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN), is used in this report and the guide. This approach proved highly adaptable to business processes related to traffic operations. BPMN uses a straightforward, graphical approach to business processes, illustrating them with objects, flows, swim pools, and swim lanes. Business processes diagrammed using BPMN are simple to comprehend and communicate. This report, along with the accompanying guide (which focuses on showing how to use BPMN for mapping traffic operations business processes) and other SHRP 2 Reliability products related to institutional structures and business process reengineering, is intended to help transportation agencies move forward in addressing nonrecurring traffic congestion and delivering more reliable travel times on their highway networks.

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C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 3 Findings 4 Conclusions 5 Recommendations 6 Reference 7 C H A P T E R 1 Background 7 Project Overview 8 Business Process Focus 9 References 10 C H A P T E R 2 Research Approach 10 Guiding Principles 10 Literature Review 12 Case Study Evaluation Criteria 12 Selected Case Studies 12 Interviews with Agency Representatives 12 National Workshop with Key Stakeholders 13 Modeling Business Processes 19 References 20 C H A P T E R 3 Case Studies: Incident Management 20 Washington: WSDOT Joint Operations Policy Statement 24 Florida: FDOT Road Rangers 29 United Kingdom: Active Traffic Management 33 References 35 C H A P T E R 4 Case Studies: Work Zone Management 35 North Carolina: NCDOT Safety and Traffic Operations Committee 39 Michigan: MDOT Work Zone Traffic Control Modeling 44 References 45 C H A P T E R 5 Case Studies: Special-Event Management 45 Kansas: Kansas Speedway 49 Michigan: The Palace of Auburn Hills 54 References 55 C H A P T E R 6 Case Study: Weather Management 55 California and Nevada: I-80 Winter State Line Closures 60 References

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61 C H A P T E R 7 Case Studies: Multiagency Operations 61 Arizona: AZTech Regional Archived Data Server 66 California: San Pablo Avenue Signal Retiming Project 71 References 72 C H A P T E R 8 Analysis and Applicability to Other Agencies 72 Influences to Process Initiation, Change, and Integration 73 Obstacles to Process Change 74 Elements of Process Development and Integration 76 Institutionalizing Business Processes 77 Benefits 77 National Action 78 References Color versions of the figures in this report are available online: www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165283.aspx.