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22 relationships, and measures that are required for improved Figure 2.3 illustrates these features and the requirements efficiency and effectiveness. they place on specialized infrastructure, custom-tailored busi- ness processes, and various institutional arrangements. Unique Process and Institutional Demands of SO&M Institutional Reality Implementing effective congestion management applications The failure to capitalize on the potential of SO&M is not for makes demands on a transportation agency's institutional envi- lack of concepts, technology, or even money. Institutional ronment that are at odds with those of capacity development, issues are a significant part of this phenomenon. With only safety, and maintenance that constitute the legacy context. some notable exceptions, few transportation agencies have These demands reflect common and characteristic features of business models committed to making the most effective use SO&M applications that determine their effectiveness. SO&M of existing capacity. applications are typically FHWA administers an annual traffic incident manage- ment self-assessment of (TIM SA) for 86 urban jurisdictions Reactive and responsive to unpredictable events on an (states, regions). This one of the few sources that rate trans- around-the-clock basis; portation agency practices and progress in the program and Dependent on situational awareness and communications institutional areas (called "strategic" in the FHWA survey), as technology; well as the more tactical and support-oriented areas related Applied at the corridor scale or network level; to incident management-specific procedures and protocols. Based on teamwork and communications intensive; In the strategic area, respondents rate progress in how inci- Dependent on performance monitoring and evaluated dent management programs are organized, resourced, tracked through the impact on system performance measured in supported and sustained. Since incident management is a real time; core strategic for SO&M in general, the assessment provides Based on the use of dynamic high technology and systems a useful reflection of current state progress. The self assess- engineering; and ments indicated that, at the program level, SO&M remains Dependent on outsiders--partners who are not under the substantially informal regarding program status, formal inter- control of a transportation agency, including PSAs and local agency relationships and performance tracking. As reported government. in the 2009 assessment, "Despite progress in the Strategic Conventional Agency Processes Taking Place in Administrative Time Accommodate Interagency Scoping & Program in Portfolio Coordination Business Processes Plan and Systems Engineering Program Technology Infrastructure Infrastructure and Systems for Situational for Control Deployment Awareness Maintenance Asset Management Operations Actions Taking Place in Real Time Real-Time Mobilization of Interagency Coordinated Execution of Event Response Activities Equipment/ Systems Personnel Operations & Situation Status Communications and Reporting (Internal and External) Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring Figure 2.3. Essential process and capabilities to realize SO&M strategy application effectiveness.