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32 of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology The top two clusters provided the basis for selecting states Administration, 2009c.) for the survey and interviews. Both methodologies were Integrated corridor management projects. (Source: U.S. designed to identify the relationships between these state Department of Transportation, FHWA, 2009c.) DOTs--in terms of program scope and effectiveness--and VII demonstration projects. (Source: U.S. Department their business processes and institutional characteristics. of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology The purpose of this evaluation was primarily to identify the Administration, 2009a.) generic characteristics of the more mature states as a group, Congestion management partnerships. (Source: U.S. as differentiated from the transitioning states. Department of Transportation, FHWA, 2009b.) AASHTO Subcommittee on Systems Operations and Management (SSOM) meetings. (Source: Authors' notes, Step 2: State DOT 20052009.) Management Interviews Application of performance measures. (Source: Cambridge and Survey Systematics et al., 2006.) Brief but structured telephone interviews were carried out Institutional issues, including the following: with eight key state DOT operations staff personnel to attempt Systems Operations as a Core Function: A Scan of the to identify the business processes and institutional character- State of the Practice. Interview-based survey of selected istics that are common among the ten mature states as differ- state DOTs, conducted for the Virginia DOT, covering entiated from the transitioning states. Interviews were also planning, DOT configuration, budgeting, partnerships, conducted with program management personnel from the marketing, and operations practices. (Source: Virginia mature and transitioning states to provide a wider represen- Transportation Research Council, 2005.) tative sampling. Regional transportation operations collaboration and Business process-related questions included the following: coordination self-assessment that included a combination of institutional and process issues. (Source: U.S. Depart- Scope of the program as indicated by the program ment of Transportation, FHWA, 2002a.) description; State DOT organization charts that were made available Technical processes--status of standard concepts of oper- by AASHTO. States were not ranked, given the varied and unweightable ations and architecture, documentation of field procedures, indicators, but were instead divided into the following communications platforms, performance measures report- three clusters based on the previous seven categories of ing, and use; Technology and systems development as reflected in deploy- information: Mature states--the 20% of state DOTS with the ment data and participation in applications specific initia- highest levels of deployment in metropolitan areas, tives; and highest self-evaluation score, most comprehensive Use of performance measures. state legislation, and the highest levels of participation in the range of national, regional, and association Institutional-related questions included the following: activities. Transitioning states--the next 30% of state DOTs, using Departmental structure--number of districts with trans- the same clustering scheme. portation management centers (TMCs) and range of strate- Other states. gies applied; Culture and leadership--formality of operations mission, Ten states appear consistently across the range of indicators relative program priority, expression in policy documents, and were clearly identifiable as the most active states. These dashboards, degree of senior championship of SO&M at states were distinguishable as more mature. An additional central office and districts, accountability for operations 15 states, while less clearly distinguishable, fell into the second attainments; (transitioning) group, where significant progress toward a more Authorization--existence of state budget category for comprehensive SO&M program (as measured by the indicators) SO&M, key legal authorities for field activities; appears to have been made. These states had ongoing plans Planning and resource allocation--formal resource alloca- to introduce improved strategy applications and business tion for SO&M, staff positions; processes supportive of SO&M (such as output performance Organization--degree of consolidation within central office measures). The remaining 25 states are in the earlier stages of and districts, executive level of responsibility (compared to SO&M program development. other programs), core capacities identified; and