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C H A P T E R 5 Research Findings: Processes That Need Institutional Support This chapter presents the conclusions drawn from the inter- effective systems for dissemination of incident information to views, surveys, and literature regarding the relationships other jurisdiction and the public, pre-agreed-upon diversion between effective programs and the supportive business and plans for various incident locations, quick clearance based on technical processes. These relationships then form the basis appropriate partnerships with private towing and recovery for the institutional architecture guidance. and/or prepositioned equipment, cooperative interagency The central hypothesis of this research, as set forth in after-action analysis and shared performance objectives. Chapter 2, is that there is a traceable relationship between effective NRC strategy applications--via the business and Road Weather Management technical processes needed to develop, implement, and sustain the strategies--and a supportive institutional framework. An Improvement of road weather management in response to analysis was made of key features of the strategy applications heavy rain and wind, snow and ice is based on contracts for in terms of the needed process functions and their institu- acquisition and data feeds of weather predictions, deployment tional implications. of environment-sending stations and microconditions moni- toring, analysis of pretreatment routines for varying condi- tions, standards protocols for equipment standby and callout, Strategy Application Features clear authority and procedures for alert levels, and appropriate That Impact Performance contract with local and/or private contractors for treatment Improving the effectiveness of SO&M means improving the and clearance. effectiveness of the individual strategy applications. Effective NRC strategy applications have a range of characteristics, Work Zone Traffic Management which are more or less satisfied and which determine the per- formance impact of the strategy. Example characteristics of Focused on traffic control plans to minimize the impacts of the strategies are discussed in this section. reduced capacity, work zone traffic management is based on clear state specifications and guidance for contractor traffic control plan; forecasts of potential traffic impacts; integra- Incident Management tion of TCP with corridor ITS systems; contractor training; Incident management in response to crashes, breakdowns, statecontractor decision systems and coordination mecha- hazmat spills, and other emergencies is improved by wide- nism; availability of standby law and enforcement and towing, spread deployment of surveillance and detections technology, as appropriate; preestablished contract limits; effective enforce- faster detection of incidents and improved information about ment of hours of capacity-impacting activities; availability of the nature of incident based on improved surveillance and public information; and coordination among jurisdictions detection technology, around-the-clock manned TMCs rapid regarding simultaneous capacity-constraining events. arrival of first responder based on effective interoperable inter- agency (center-to-center and center-to-field and field-to-field) Special Events Planning and Management communications and dispatch, correct identification of needed response resources based on prepared procedures, effective Special events planning and management to accommodate traffic control based on clear interagency incident command, event patrons with minimum traffic disruption is based on 34