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36 Table 5.1. Relationships among Effective SO&M Applications, Supportive Processes, and Their Institutional Implications Characteristics of Effective Examples of Needed Support Examples of Institutional Implications Applications from Processes of Process Requirements Responsiveness to event · Program scoping · Staff capable of analysis · Situational awareness system · Integration into planning and programming · Aligned partners with regard to concept of · Amount of prepositioned equipment · ITS project development and implementation operations (ConOps) · Adequate resources for necessary infrastruc- ture and staff · Coordinated organizational units (central office and districts) · Customer-service performance culture Targeting of application · Availability of data · Staff capable of analysis · Quality of surveillance and reporting · Outcome performance measurement information (discrimination) · Level of forecasts, analytics Aggressiveness of application · Full realization of ConOps · Culture oriented to customer service and · Coordination/cooperation level · Documentation of current practice as basis performance measurement among parties for improvement · Continuous-improvement orientation · Use of performance measures to · Systematic platform and technology · Accountability of individuals, units for improve development performance · Assertion of jurisdiction regarding · Full legal authority ability to employ best practice · Agreed-upon ConOps among partners Integration among applications · Systems engineering process · Degree of interagency integration · Interoperability/integration of · Shared ConOps and architecture communications and systems · Common standards and protocols · Integration with external data sources (e.g., road weather) Coverage and density of applications · Development of standardized applications · Adequate resources from a needs-based, · Full needs-based program scope, · Integration into the planning process multiyear life-cycle budget--predictable, including all relevant strategies-- sustainable urban and rural--based on planning/ · Mission focus on entire network budgeting · Level of deployment--areawide and per unit area Program Scoping · Whether the applications are targeted and configured accu- rately to the problem and context. Few state DOTs or local Definition or regional transportation agencies have conducted a sys- This aspect encompasses the range of SO&M strategy appli- tematic analysis of potentially cost-effective SO&M appli- cations intended to maintain and improve levels of service cations by problem, function, geography, network, and and safety for the highway system. The strategy applications travel type. The 22 transitioning agencies typically exhibit are based on well-understood conventions of systems engi- strategy applications focused on the most seriously disrup- neering and related procedures and protocols--for which tive causes (incident management in heavily congested both state-of-the-practice guidance and best practice exam- areas, RWIS in major snow and ice belts, and construction) ples exist. and only in selected or congested regions. There appears to be only modest corridor-level consistency as facilities go across jurisdictional lines and between urban and rural Indicators and Range areas. A small number of DOTs have somewhat more fully The key parameters that have an impact on effectiveness developed programs for coverage of all congested freeways relate to the why, the where, and the how of the implementa- (as indicated in the BTS semiannual ITS deployment sur- tion of strategy applications: vey). Few are developing arterial applications.