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38 basis or piggy-backed on the transportation agency's existing variation in the systems between early deploying and later- project development process for conventional traffic engineer- deploying metropolitan areas. There are also concepts of ing improvements. Project development in ITS presents a set operations or architectures, systems platforms, and devices of challenges relating to collaboration, resource adequacy, and that are not standardized. Key issues include lack of com- planning/engineering integration that require an organized mon data definitions, archiving capabilities, and ability to management approach. Federal aid and industry guidance is accept external inputs. The legacy of unique systems is a available for systems integration and software development, barrier to cost-effective management and upgrading. This and several states have developed an ITS project develop- lack of consistency constrains functionality and interoper- ment process in this fashion. However, this process is often ability across the state and limits the degree of state-level sit- inappropriate to the scale of SO&M projects and the tech- uational awareness and archiving. nologies involved. Systematic Technology Selections ITS Asset Management Systems State DOTs and other transportation agencies vary in the cur- Initial investments in ITS technology are typically in a high- rency of their technologies, as has already been indicated. maintenance mode and often in need of replacement or Until recently, technology selection has been qualitative or upgrading. While systematic asset management is being insti- price-based, without systematic, quantitative evaluation. A tutionalized for highway assets, the ITS components are just standard approach to selecting and upgrading systems is a key being introduced on a limited basis, often integrated with other reflection of an organized approach. A few states, especially highway assets. those with fewer metropolitan districts, have a rationalized approach to technology evaluation. Technology and Systems Development Performance Measurement Definition Definition SO&M is dependent on a framework of systems platforms and Performance measurement is the determination of a strategy supporting ITS devices to achieve situational awareness, com- application's effectiveness in terms of reduction in delays munications, analysis, information dissemination, archiving, and travel times, travel time reliability, severity of crashes, and operation of field control devices. and quality of traveler information. Performance measure- ment and reporting are used internally as a management tool to improve applications and to guide cost-effective invest- Indicators and Range ments, and they are used externally to evaluate the overall Systems platform robustness and consistency, as well as tech- program impact and for communication with customers nology evolution, are indicators of technical capability. Key and elected officials. indicator levels include standardized platform capabilities and systematic technology selections. Indicators and Range The status of performance measurement for improved Standardized Platform Capabilities operations is a key reflection of the transportation agencies' At the statewide level, standardized, integrated operating understanding of and commitment to SO&M. The interviews platforms are essential to interoperability and to achieving and survey conducted for this project, while not detailed in situational awareness and communication. In the mature this area, indicated that there is a set of key issues that are states, systems platforms are becoming increasingly stan- necessarily related: dardized and technical staff capabilities are improving. The transitioning state DOTs have often deployed basic, first- Commitment to continuous improvement; generation ITS technology (surveillance, detection, and com- Development of strategy applications affects evaluation for munication), but applications are not statewide and full the purpose of benchmarking improvement; integration has not been established. In many cases, there is Development of outcome measures;